我将批判性地分析的第二个理论家是利维•维果茨基(Lev Vygotsky, 1896-1934)。他与皮亚杰同一年出生在俄罗斯。他学习法律，毕业于莫斯科大学。然后，他继续攻读文学和语言学博士学位。维果茨基在俄罗斯革命后开始研究心理学，当时马克思主义取代了沙皇的统治。新马克思主义哲学强调社会主义和集体主义。人们期望个人放弃个人的目标和成就，通过分享和合作来改善整个社会。个人的成功被看作是文化的成功。人们非常重视历史，认为任何文化都只能通过思想和事件来理解。维果茨基在他的人类发展模型中使用了这些元素;这就是所谓的社会文化方法。个人的发展是文化的结果。这一理论主要适用于智力发展，如思维和推理过程，人们认为这些过程是通过与他人(主要是父母)的社会互动而发展起来的。
The second theorist i will be critically analysing is Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). He was born in Russia in the same year as Piaget. He studied law and graduated at Moscow University. He then went on the study a Ph.D in Literature and Linguistics.Vygotsky’s began to work in psychology after the Russian revolution where the Marxism replaced the rule of the czar. The new Marxist philosophy emphasised socialism and collectivism. Individuals were expected to give up their personal goals and achievements to improve the society as a whole by sharing and co operation. The success of an individual was seen as reflecting the success of the culture. Heavy emphasis was placed on history, believing that any culture can only be understood through the ideas and events that have made it occur. Vygotsky used these elements in his model of human development; this is known as a sociocultural approach. The development of an individual is a result of culture. The theory primarily applies to mental development such as the thought and reasoning process which were believed to develop through social interaction with others mainly parents.