First, Jie Liu believes that it is vital for every postgraduate marketing education provider to understand the three characteristics of a postgraduate marketing student which are motives, expectations and preparedness. Liu divided the factors that may perhaps motivate students to choose postgraduate marketing education into intrinsic, extrinsic and career related. In a research executed by Liu where questionnaires were distributed to marketing students of four different British universities, the result depicted that what motivated students for marketing postgraduate studies were intrinsic and career related factors. This means that students chose the postgraduate marketing program at their own will so that it could help them build a career and provide them with greater opportunities. This is the reason why there are numerous international students in the United Kingdom as several students from developing countries such as India and China believe that studying abroad can help them attain suitable jobs. "It is encouraging to find that far more of the Chinese students, who have invested so much in terms of family finances and effort to go to the UK to study, were optimistic rather than pessimistic about their career prospects" (Counsell 2011:71). In regards to expectations, Liu states that all students expected that they would be provided with theoretical as well as practical knowledge on the subject. Postgraduate students have high expectations that the programme will teach them a lot which will be of significance in their future. Furthermore, Liu identifies the characteristic of preparedness to be essential. Postgraduate students need to be prepared, having an understanding of the course and a series of skills to help them cope with their postgraduate education. Liu then distinguished home and international students in regards to preparedness after carrying out a further analysis. The results showed that international students were less prepared than home students. There are various reasons as to why an international student could be less prepared such as different learning techniques, difficulty in understanding the language, culture shock and not being able to adapt to the British environment. Thus, Liu seeks to provide knowledge about postgraduate marketing education in the United Kingdom by measuring the motives, expectations and preparedness of postgraduate marketing students.