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澳洲环境研究代写论文:诺尔曼的入侵

另一方面,由于1066诺尔曼的入侵,法国成为英国的官方语言,法律和管理,由于其显赫的地位作为上层阶级和入侵后发生的语码转换的语言,约一万个法语单词“战争规则,法律和时尚”(米拉尔126)进入了英语语言在中古英语时期(公元1100-1500)(梅林科夫97)。然而,当一些Norman French完全取代了他们古老的英国同行,这样的“财富”取代“命运,”语义变化发生时都活了下来,用一个例子的区别古英语的“房子”和法语“大厦”(库尔佩珀37)。然而,就像拉丁语,法国的借贷已经下降以来,上层阶级停止讲法语和英语成为作为管理的新语言(佩珀37, 38),但是法国的影响一直生活在各种级别的借款,如通过借食品相关词汇如“家禽”短语,如“我é内奇à三河,“粘着语素后缀“参考”(弗罗姆金et al。358, 505)。不同于拉丁语的书面词汇,事实上,法国人对英语的影响主要是通过口语词汇是重要的因为它的地方,他们可能会传达一种混合登记并参考具体和抽象概念的日耳曼和Latinate lexis之间的法语借词(库尔佩珀39)。

澳洲环境研究代写论文:诺尔曼的入侵

On the other hand, because of the Norman invasion of 1066, French became the official language of law and administration in England and, due to its prestigious status as the language of the upper class and the code-switching that occurred after the invasion, approximately ten-thousand French words “associated with warfare, rule, law and fashion” (Millar 126) were adopted into the English language during the Middle English period (c. 1100-1500) (Mellinkoff 97). However, while some Norman-French terms completely replaced their Old English counterparts, such “fortune” replacing “wyrd,” semantic change occurred when both terms survived, with an example being the distinction between the Old English “house” and the French loan “mansion” (Culpeper 37). However, much like Latin, French borrowing has been in decline since the upper class stopped speaking French and English became regarded as the new language of administration (Culpeper 37, 38), yet the influence of French has lived on in various levels of borrowings, such as through borrowed food-related lexis like “poultry,” phrases such as “ménage à trois,” and bound morpheme suffixes like “-ible” (Fromkin et al. 358, 505). Unlike the written lexis of Latin, the fact that French influenced English mostly through spoken vocabulary is significant because it places French loanwords between Germanic and Latinate lexis in that they may convey a mixed register and refer both concrete and abstract concepts (Culpeper 39).