Bowen and Levin found that, even at these institutions with elite academics and small time athletics, there are persistent problems that compromise the quality of education. First, recruited athletes have a substantial advantage in the admissions process. This issue was consistent across each group of colleges studied, but it was most pronounced at Ivy League institutions, where recruits were four times more likely to be admitted relative to comparable applicants. Recruited athletes had markedly lower standardized test scores than not only their classmates not participating in sports but also walk-on athletes. Second, once on campus, recruited athletes perform much worse academically than expected, based on their academic and demographic characteristics, and differences did not exist across factors such as race and socioeconomic status. More concerning is that the underperformance is not restricted to the athletic season. Underperformance persisted even in seasons and years during which they were not participating in athletics. At Ivy League institutions, the majority of recruited athletes fell in the bottom third of the class, accentuated by 81% of high-profile recruited athletes in the bottom third. NESCAC schools saw a similar pattern. Third, other groups that share certain characteristics with athletes do not demonstrate underperformance as athletes do. For instance, students with heavy time commitments, such as musicians, and those who receive admissions preference, such as legacies, do not perform worse than their peers. Similarly, underrepresented minority students, who typically receive an advantage in the admissions process, have shown steady improvement in narrowing the performance gap while the gap has widened for athletes. Fourth, the authors identified a separate culture associated with athletics on the campuses examined in the study, creating a divide negatively impacting the overall campus culture. Athletes frequently live with other athletes, spend most of their time together outside of their athletic responsibilities, and rarely participate in extracurricular activities outside of sports. They also tend to cluster in certain majors, specifically those in the social sciences and in business. Finally, Bowen and Levin found that schools in the University Athletic Association (Carnegie Mellon University, Emory University, University of Chicago, Washington University in St. Louis) were largely successful in avoiding the pitfalls associated with recruiting in intercollegiate athletics. This was the only group of schools in the study that had a pool of recruited athletes that resembled their non-athlete classmates based on their entering qualifications and academic performance while enrolled.