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澳洲经济学论文代写:人民币汇率

”可持续发展的概念获得了人民币汇率与我们共同的未来的出版由世界环境与发展委员会(WECD)在1987年。出现的识别需要保持经济发展和环境保护之间的平衡,确保内部和代际公平。在1980年代之前,mono-disciplinary方法应用于定义经济发展。经济发展基本上意味着人均收入持续增加。例如,1957年,迈耶和鲍德温经济发展定义为一个过程一个经济的实际国民收入增加在很长一段时间的(Meier和鲍德温,1957年,p . 2)。这一概念的发展中是普遍的许多第三世界国家,直到1960年代末。然而,在二十世纪的最后一个季度,经济发展是一个多维的概念。定义的缺点之一,经济发展的持续增加,人均收入是它未能适应收入分配的问题。人们认为分配方面将照顾增长的“涓滴效应”。然而,到1960年代末,很明显,经济发展在很长一段时间在许多发展中国家未能带来“涓滴效应”。一个新的环境和社会维度的发展,被称为“可持续发展”,出现在1980年代。第一个正式定义可持续发展是我们共同的未来,它被定义为“一个过程,满足人类需求而不危及后代满足他们的需求的机会

澳洲经济学论文代写:人民币汇率

“The concept of sustainable development gained its currency with the publication of Our Common Future by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD) in 1987. It emerged from recognition of the need to maintain a balance between economic development and environmental protection and to ensure intra- and intergenerational equity. Before the 1980s, a mono-disciplinary approach was applied to define economic development. Economic development basically meant sustained increase in per capita income. For example, in 1957, Meier and Baldwin defined economic development as ‘a process whereby an economy’s real national income increases over a long period of time’ (Meier and Baldwin, 1957, p. 2). This notion of development was prevalent among many of the third world countries until the end of the 1960s. However, during the last quarter of the twentieth century, a multi-dimensional concept of economic development was developed. One of the shortcomings of defining economic development in terms of sustained increase in per capita income is that it fails to accommodate the question of distribution of income. It was believed that the distributional aspect would be taken care of by the ‘trickle-down effect’ of growth. However, by the end of the 1960s, it became clear that economic development over a long period of time in many of the developing countries failed to bring about the ‘trickle-down effect’. A new environmental and social dimension of development, referred to as ‘sustainable development’, emerged in the 1980s. The first formal definition of sustainable development is found in Our Common Future, where it is defined as ‘a process that fulfils present human needs without endangering the opportunities of future generations to fulfil their needs’ (WECD, 1987, p. 43).” (P. 3)