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澳洲留学生作业代写:家庭和学校教育

考虑到生物和生态系统变量之间的复杂相互作用,可以确定儿童在教育成果方面的发展。为了更好地理解孩子的教育成功,需要分析家庭和学校的两个方面,因为它们是孩子生活中最具影响力的两个方面(Sheridan, Clarke, & Ransom, 2014)。在生态变量中,儿童学业成功的基本指标包括家庭与学校的伙伴关系,进而包括学校内部的家庭参与(Christenson, 2004)。一旦这种伙伴关系为儿童的学习提供了适当的支持性实践(Owens et al., 2008),儿童、家庭和学校将从这种伙伴关系中受益。重要的教育机构,如哈佛家庭研究项目、Head Start办公室和国家家长、家庭和社区参与中心,已经认识到家庭教育影响力的重要性。此外,一些联邦政策,如2002年的《不让一个孩子掉队法》、2004年的《残疾人教育法》,旨在扩大家庭在教育体系中的作用,加强家庭与学校的伙伴关系。许多作者使用不同的表达方式和词汇来指代那个研究领域。有些人用“参与”这个词,有些人更喜欢用“关系”。其他人提出了伙伴关系这个词。根据韦氏词典(2004),合伙人是“分享的人;一个与另一个相联系,尤指在一个动作中。考虑到家庭和学校的背景,伙伴关系是一种双方密切合作的关系。双方明确规定并共同承担权利和责任。家庭-学校伙伴关系的重点是改善儿童的经验和结果,包括那些在本质上是学术、社会、情感和行为(Christenson & Sheridan, 2001)。表1举例说明了在家庭-学校关系中采用传统取向和采用伙伴关系取向之间的差异。在传统的学习取向中,学习目标、学习策略、学习活动和学习效果往往是由学校决定的。另一方面,伙伴关系取向则认为这些概念是相互的、双向的、共同的影响,它们影响学习,并且是共同决定的。

澳洲留学生作业代写:家庭和学校教育

The development of children in terms of educational outcomes could be determined considering a complex interaction of biological and eco-systemic variables. To better understand the educational success of children, both aspects of home and school context need to be analyzed, since they are the two most influential context in a child’s life (Sheridan, Clarke, & Ransom, 2014). Among ecological variable, essential indicators for the children’s academic success include the family-school partnership and, consequently, the family engagement within the school (Christenson, 2004). Children, families and schools’ benefits from that partnership, once it provides the appropriate engagement in supportive practices for children’s learning (Owens et al., 2008). Important educational institutions, such as Harvard Family Research Project, The Office of Head Start, and the National Center on Parent, Family, and Community Engagement, have recognized the relevance of families’ educational influence. Additionally, some federal policies, such as No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 directed to expand the role of families in the education system and enhanced the family-school partnerships.Many authors use different expressions and words to refer to that area of study. Some use the word involvement, others prefer to use relationship. And others raised the word partnership. According to Merriam-Webster (2004), a partner is “one that shares; one associated with another especially in an action”. Considering the context of families and schools, a partnership is a relationship involving close cooperation between parties. The parties have clearly specified and joint rights and responsibilities. The focus of family-school partnerships is to improve the experiences and outcomes for children, including those that are academic, social, emotional, and behavioral in nature (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001). Table 1 exemplifies the differences between taking a traditional orientation and using a partnership orientation in the family-school relationship. In the traditional orientation, the learning goals, strategies, activities and desired outcomes tend to be school-determined. On the other hand, a partnership orientation defends these concepts are mutual, bidirectional shared influences that affect learning and are jointly-determined.