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澳洲墨尔本代写作业:功利主义

杰里米·边沁是功利主义理论的先驱之一,他被公认为功利主义的创始人。边沁将效用定义为“有助于幸福”。他认为所有对好坏的判断都可以建立在快乐和痛苦的基础上。他被视为心理享乐主义的倡导者。在他著名的《道德与立法原理导论》(1979)中,边沁说:“自然把人置于痛苦和快乐这两个至高无上的主人的统治之下。”因此,痛苦和快乐为他的“我们应该做什么”的道德理论提供了基础。起初,他的职业生涯是从学习法律开始的,后来为了给立法者提供建议而转向了道德伦理。他最感兴趣的是完善法律,而立法者的目标是功利主义原则或最大幸福原则。因此,他的建议最初不是针对个人和他们的生活选择,而是针对立法者。边沁虽然认为快乐是解释人类行为的关键,但在构建他的法律理论时,他更多地依赖痛苦的概念。虽然他支持行为功利主义,但他的“制裁为基础”的义务理论更适用于他非常有兴趣改进的法律体系。约翰·斯图亚特·密尔也是该理论最著名的功利主义思想家和捍卫者之一。他著名的思想可以在他著名的文章《功利主义》中找到。密尔观察到道德思想的某种危机。哲学思想家一直未能就什么是对什么是错的原则达成共识。密尔认为,要使道德合法化,有这样的基础是必要的。这就是功利主义理论如此重要的原因。

澳洲墨尔本代写作业:功利主义

One of the first utilitarian theorisers, Jeremy Bentham, is famously credited for being the founder of the doctrine. Bentham defined utility as “instrumental to happiness”. He believes that all judgements of good and bad can be based on pleasure and pain. He is seen as an advocate of psychological hedonism. In his famous introduction of An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1979), Bentham states “Nature has placed man under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.” Therefore, pain and pleasure provide the basis for his moral theory of ‘what we ought to do’. Initially, he began his career by studying law and then moved on to moral ethics in order to advise legislators. He was primarily interested in improving the law and his goal for the legislator was the utilitarian principle or the greatest happiness principle. Therefore, his advice was not initially aimed for individuals and their life choices but for the legislator. Although Bentham sees pleasure as the key of explaining how human beings act, he relies more often on the concept of pain when constructing his legal theory. While he does endorse act-utilitarianism, his ‘sanction-based’ theory of obligation is more applicable to the legal system he was so interested in improving.John Stuart Mill is also one of the most well-known utilitarian thinkers and defenders of the theory. His celebrated thoughts can be found in his famous essay: Utilitarianism. Mill observes something of a crisis in moral thinking. Philosophical thinkers have been unable to come to a consensus on the principle of what constitutes right and wrong. Mill argues that having such a foundation is necessary to legitimise morality. This is why the theory of utilitarianism is so important.