马n和凯蒂·l .(2002),在他们的工作在护理“授权”,指的是巴西教育家保罗Freire(1994),他强调,授权是一个过程,人们可以学会控制自己的生活。他进一步认为赋权过程和结果。然而有时候赋权是一个结果,它不是一个二分变量,一个是或不是授权。相反,权力是一个连续变量,比分配更类似于一个方向。玛莎(Robert m & m . 2009)
Lovemore N. and Katie L. (2002), in their work “Empowerment in Nursing”, referred to the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire(1994), who emphasise that empowerment is a process by which people can learn to take control of their lives. He further viewed empowerment as both a process and an outcome. However whiles empowerment is an outcome, it is not a dichotomous variable, in that one is or is not empowered. Instead, empowerment is a continuous variable, more similar to a direction than allocation.(Robert M. & Martha M. 2009)
Patient empowerment is a process intended to help independent performance. Patient empowerment is the freedom to choose where and when one has treatment and implies that patients should retain autonomy and responsibility for decision-making during their treatment. (Malin and Teasdale,1991). It is stressed here that empowerment of the individual in a way maximizes the patient independence and minimize their dependence. Patient empowerment therefore means the independence of patient, information exchange, being aware of patient’s needs and choices, retaining their autonomy, respecting their decisions among others. In other context, patient empowerment is a process where individuals are helped to have control over factors which affect their health. Van Gedder(2002), then remarks that “the ultimate goal of empowerment and therefore patient empowerment is well-being. Within health empowerment is seen as a key determinant of health”.