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澳洲人类学论文代写:Nahdlatul

Nahdlatul乌力马成立于1926年,穆罕默德Hasyim容易’ari在东爪哇。[25]反对穆罕默迪亚,ν想促进印尼伊斯兰教的想法,一个民族主义结合本地的宗教习俗和仪式。[26]这种形式的伊斯兰教神秘主义更加开放。[27]除了《古兰经》和穆罕默德言行录,ν还包含了高级的使用和传统法律或海关问题的答案。[28]ν学者也合作找到问题的答案,一个名为ijma”的实践。[29]然而,“因为每个党是自主的,在一个更高的委员会决定不绑定低层委员会或个人乌力马。“[30]

经学院伊斯兰寄宿学校。kiaiν的经学院领导,或男主人的伊斯兰教。[31]kiai不接收与《古兰经》支付他们的工作,但有很多事情他们能挣钱,像涉足政治。[32]Kiai苏菲大师一样,鼓励研究tasawwuf或神秘主义。[33]也喜欢苏菲大师,经学院的学生访问kiai的坟墓。kiai逝世的纪念日,纪念“pesantren精心组织了庆祝活动”(khaul)。[34]最初,怒不公开支持女性教育。[35]女人并不真的ν的一部分,直到1957年,当他们最终能够加入议会。[36]尽管如此,经学院妇女早在1919年开放。[37]然而,领袖Kiai Bisri并不喜欢女权运动。他相信在pesantren会给女性有关,“觉得教他们纪律。“[38]直到1934年,女性的教育被正式批准。经学院[39]女性可以教,但“只允许教会女学生为了不让男人诱惑。’”[40]预计少的女学生经学院:

澳洲人文学论文代写:Nahdlatul

许多经学院要求不那么严格的课程女学生比男学生。例如,女性研究相同的文本但阅读小数量的页面然后男学生;因此他们最终以更少的伊斯兰的知识来源和教义。[41]

The Nahdlatul Ulama was founded in 1926 by Muhammad Hasyim Asy’ari in East Java. [25] In opposition to the Muhammadiyah, the NU wanted to promote the idea of Indonesian Islam, a nationalistic take on the religion which combines with native customs and rituals. [26] This form of Islam is much more open to mysticism. [27] In addition to the Qur’an and Hadith, the NU also embraces the use of fiqh and adat, or customs, for answers to questions. [28] NU scholars also collaborate to find answers to questions, a practice called ijma’. [29] However, “because each ulama is autonomous, a decision made in a higher council is not binding for lower-level councils or for individual ulama.” [30]

Pesantren are Islamic boarding schools. The NU’s pesantren are lead by a kiai, or a male master of Islam. [31] The kiai do not receive payment for their work with Qur’an but have a variety of things they can do to earn money, like venture into politics. [32] Kiai, like Sufi masters, encourage study of tasawwuf, or mysticism. [33] Also like Sufi masters, students of the pesantren visit the grave of the kiai. On the anniversary of the kiai’s death, “the pesantren organizes elaborate festivities” in rememberance (khaul). [34] Initially, the NU was not overtly supportive of women’s education. [35] Women were not really a part of the NU until 1957, when they were finally able to join the legislature. [36] Despite this, there was a pesantren open to women as early as 1919. [37] However, leader Kiai Bisri was not all that fond of the women’s rights movement. He believed that being in the pesantren would give women something to do and “felt that it would teach them discipline.” [38] It wasn’t until 1934 that women’s education was officially sanctioned. [39] Women can teach in the pesantren, but “are only allowed to teach female students so as ‘not to bring men into temptation.'” [40] Less is expected of female students in the pesantren as well:

Many pesantren require a less rigorous curriculum for female students than for male students. Women study the same texts but, for example, read smaller numbers of pages then male students; thus they end up with less knowledge of the Islamic sources and teachings. [41]