明确教学音素意识已经证明是有效的早期阅读实践。然而,任何干预的类型和范围,教师提供一个多维的焦点应该考虑根据学生的赤字。建立一个读写程序,同时教听力和口语是一种有效的实践当所有组件依赖于底层词汇知识。让孩子大量的时间在课堂上阅读识字学习的各个阶段都是至关重要的,特别是对于那些‘危险’的孩子往往不会远离学校发展他们的阅读技能。写作能力是成功必不可少的素养。Troia(2009)网站里夫斯(2000)考试的赤贫学校(识字时获得了有一种强烈的强调高质量的写作计划。这些项目可以增强,整个学校的方法鼓励和参与这些孩子认为“风险”。“作家工作坊”是一种有效的练习时,可以吸引孩子的真实目的,有意义的创作活动和明确的写作教学文本类型。建立一个“作家研讨会”在教室里可以通过教师教明确认知过程模型、解释、反馈和脚手架的写作策略。研究的荟萃分析(Troia,2009)有效的写作教学1 – 3年级的风险作家,点的结论sub-word平衡教学项目与明确的指令,单词,句子,和文字水平更有效。使用ICT写作,例如,字(词)处理技术是一种有效的工具来支持当代写作过程的所有方面。研究显示文字处理和指导修改策略的影响具有很大的正效应低成就学生。广泛的ICT技术的链接以及创建文本环境,孩子们更熟悉(电子邮件、博客、网络聊天、超文本和多媒体)帮助他们参与不同的文本类型的写作。
Explicit teaching of phonemic awareness has shown to be effective for early reading practices. However, whatever the type and range of interventions that teachers provide, a multidimensional focus should be considered depending on the student’s deficits. Establishing a reading and writing program that is taught simultaneously with listening and speaking is an effective practice when all components rely on underlying word knowledge. Allowing children plenty of time to read in class for is vital in all stages of literacy learning, and especially for those ‘at risk’ children who tend not to develop their reading skills away from school.Writing competence is essential for literacy success. Troia (2009) sites Reeves (2000) examination of high-poverty schools in which literacy gains have been made when there is a strong emphasis on a quality writing program. These programs can be enhanced where a ‘whole school approach’ has encouraged and engaged those children deemed ‘at risk’. A ‘Writer’s Workshop’ is an effective practice when it can engage children in authentic purposes, meaningful composing activities and explicit teaching of writing text types. Establishing a ‘Writer’s Workshop’ in the classroom allows cognitive processes to be taught explicitly through teachers’ modelling, explanation, feedback and scaffolding of writing strategies. A meta-analysis of research (Troia, 2009) on effective writing instruction in grades 1-3 for at’ risk writers’, points to the conclusion that balanced instructional programs with explicit instruction at the sub-word, word, sentence, and text levels were more effective. Using ICT for writing, for example, word processing is an effective tool to support all aspects of the contemporary writing process. Studies have shown the impact of word processing and instruction in revising strategies having a large positive effect on low achieving students. The linking of a wide range of ICT technologies as well as creating text environments that children are more familiar with (emails, blogs, internet chat, hypertext and multimedia) helps them to engage in the writing of different text types.