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最初,自闭症在1911年使用的术语来描述现实的损失在精神分裂症患者(科林格,道森,&·雷纳,2003)。1940年,卡锐和阿斯伯格综合症这一个单独的疾病,涉及社会关系的障碍,语言,和限制重复动作(科林格et al .,2003)。科林格,道森和雷纳(2003)指出,父母都是历史上指责孩子的自闭症由于“过于知识、冷血的和有限的利益在别人”(p . 410)。然而这是反对在1960的测试证明了自闭症儿童的父母没有不同于正常发展儿童的父母。

自闭症影响大约每年150年出生,是终身残疾(Schwartz &戴维斯,2008)。它会影响男性多于女性;但是女性比男性更可能有一个认知延迟(科林格et al .,2003)。科林格et al .,2003年指出,遗传因素也发挥了作用。症状成为现在三岁前(科林格et al .,2003)。在儿童自闭症谱系障碍损害:(一)接受和表达沟通、社会互动(b)和(c)限制或重复组的利益或活动(Schwartz &戴维斯,2008)。科林格et al。(2003)指出八个不同的障碍,可以在儿童自闭症谱系障碍。社会能力是影响由于障碍的理解和应对社会信息(科林格et al .,2003)。科林格et al。(2003)指出,虽然依恋的形成并不影响社会模仿是影响也会影响语言。共同关注的目光和姿态的共享以及对社会刺激定向注意,脸和演讲,也损害儿童自闭症谱系障碍(科林格et al .,2003)。最后,脸、情感、感知和表达以及象征性的游戏都是受损的儿童自闭症谱系障碍(科林格et al .,2003)。科林格等人指出,有自伤行为,睡眠障碍,进食障碍,和异常的恐惧可能与这种疾病但并不主要。


Initially, Autism was the term used in 1911 to describe the loss of reality in people with Schizophrenia (Klinger, Dawson, & Renner, 2003). In 1940, Kranner and Asperger made it a separate disorder that involved impairment of social relationships, language, and restricted repetitive movements (Klinger et al., 2003). Klinger, Dawson, and Renner (2003) noted that parents were historically blamed for their child’s autism due to being “overly intellectual, cold-hearted, and a limited interest in other people” (p. 410). However this was argued against in the 1960’s as tests proved that the parents of children with Autism were no different than parents of normally developed children.

Autism affects approximately 1 in 150 births per year and is a lifelong disability (Schwartz & Davis, 2008). It affects more males than females; however females are more likely to have a cognitive delay than males (Klinger et al., 2003). Klinger et al., 2003 noted that genetic factors play a role as well. Symptoms become present prior to the age of three (Klinger et al., 2003). Autism Spectrum Disorder impairs within children: (a) receptive and expressive communication, (b) social interactions, and (c) has restricted or repetitive set of interests or activities (Schwartz & Davis, 2008). Klinger et al. (2003) noted eight different impairments that can be seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Social abilities are affected due to impairment in understanding and responding to social information (Klinger et al., 2003). Klinger et al. (2003) noted that while the formation of attachment is not affected social imitation is affected which can also affect language. Joint attention which is gaze and gesture as a means of sharing attention as well as orienting to social stimuli, faces and speech, is also impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Klinger et al., 2003). Finally, face, emotional, and expression perception as well as symbolic play are all impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Klinger et al., 2003). Klinger et al. noted that self-injurious behaviors, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, and abnormal fears may be seen with this disorder but are not primary.