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澳洲社会学作业代写:确定民主

另一种简化问题的方法是确定民主(以民主指数- DI衡量)与经济发展(以人的发展指数- HDI衡量)之间是否存在相关性,以及在何种程度上存在相关性。任何相关性并不一定排除非经济因素之间的因果关系。在考察两者之间的关系之前,本文将考察利普塞特(1959)的现代化理论,以及普泽沃斯基对经济发展与民主之间联系的有影响力的研究。最后,本文将探讨这种相关性中的一些异常现象,如中国、伊朗、沙特阿拉伯、罗马教廷和文莱。20世纪70年代以前,经济发展是以GDP、GNP、贸易差额等指标来界定的。诺贝尔奖得主阿马蒂亚·森(Amartya Sen)和巴基斯坦经济学家马哈布·乌尔·哈克(Mahbub ul Haq)认为,经济发展应该用其他指标来衡量,以反映经济发展的总体水平。他们的工作导致了1990年的人类发展指数,该指数衡量了四个因素。到2010年,HDI已经被修订并结合了三个因素。

澳洲社会学作业代写:确定民主

Another way of simplifying the question is to determine if, and to what extent, there is a correlation between democracy (measured by the Democracy Index – DI) and economic development (measured by the Human Development Index – HDI). Any correlation does not necessarily rule out the causal relationship of non-economic factors. Before examining the correlation, the essay will look at Modernization Theory by Lipset (1959) as well as Przeworski’s influential study on the link between economic development and democracy. Finally, the essay will look at some anomalies in this correlation such as China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the Holy See and Brunei.Before the 1970s, economic development was defined in terms of indicators such as GDP, GNP, trade balance etc. Nobel prize winner Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq argued that economic development should be measured with other indicators to reflect the totality of economic development. Their work led to the Human Development Index in 1990 which measured four factors. By 2010, the HDI had been revised and combined three factors;