指导的历史可以追溯到“奥德赛”在希腊mythologywherein雅典娜女神的智慧,假定一种致命的男性作为导师。雅典娜充当代理家长忒勒马科斯,男孩的父亲,奥德修斯在特洛伊战争。雅典娜提供指导和指令男孩的领导,后者认为家庭和成为一个独立的年轻人。因此,指导的概念已由两个人的观念形成的关系作出贡献的个人发展经验较少的人(Marks &戈尔茨坦,2005)。指导也通常表示“一个年轻的成年人之间的关系和一个年长的,更有经验的成年人(世卫组织)帮助年轻的个人学习导航工作的成人世界和世界”(Halpern &张,2008,p . 37)。多年来,指导发展的概念和代表的几件事情。在这些导师的表征包括辅导员、老师或朋友。其他作者将指导关系称为“赞助商、赞助人和教父”关系(Allen et al .,2004)。基本上,主线是指导是一个伙伴关系,两个人相遇,自愿或任务,为目的的交换知识和信息与一个特定的公司或组织。对指导在各种学科的文献综述海耶斯(2001)产生的定义指导“两人之间建立信任的过程,一个是有经验的,另一个是新人”(p . 112)。罗伯茨和他的同事们扩大指导的概念,将它称为“提供一份机密的、专业的、支持性的关系由一个有经验的同事,能够并且愿意分享他或她的知识和经验门徒或学员”
The history of mentoring dates back to "The Odyssey" in Greek mythologywherein Athena, the goddess of wisdom, assumed a mortal male form as Mentor. Athena acted as proxy parent for Telemachus when the boy's father, Odysseus, fought in the Trojan War. Athena provided guidance and instruction to the boy as the latter assumed the leadership of the household and became an independent young man. Hence, the concept of mentoring has been shaped by the notion that two persons form a relationship to contribute to the personal development of the less experienced person (Marks & Goldstein, 2005). Mentoring also generally denotes "a relationship between a younger adult and an older, more experienced adult [who] helps the younger individual learn to navigate the adult world and the world of work" (Halpern & Cheung, 2008, p. 37). For years, the concept of mentoring has developed and come to represent several things. Among these representations of a mentor include that of a counselor, teacher, or friend. Other authors refer to mentoring relationships as "sponsor, patron, and godfather" relationships (Allen et al., 2004). Basically, the common thread is that mentoring is a partnership where two individuals meet together, either voluntarily or by assignment, for the purpose of exchanging knowledge and information germane to a particular company or organization.A literature review on mentoring across various disciplines by Hayes (2001) produced a definition of mentoring "as a process of building trust between two people, one is experienced and the other is a newcomer" (p. 112). Roberts and his colleagues expanded on the concept of mentoring and referred to it as "the offer of a confidential, professional and supportive relationship by an experienced colleague, able and willing to share his or her knowledge and experience to a protégé or mentee"