第二代生物燃料是来自植物木质纤维材料。生物乙醇是由处理木质纤维素的植物材料。许多多年生牧草、白杨、柳树、林业、农业废弃物等也用于生成这个第二代第三代生物燃料生产的生物燃料的藻类可能不会与粮食作物的竞争,使其非常可行,更有前途。但大部分第二代和第三代还没有商业化随着技术的进步,它仍在进行开发(Biemans et al .,2008)。本文将关注可能影响或生物燃料对生物多样性的影响即对栖息地的影响,对固碳的影响,影响水的质量和数量,增加化学的影响使用,林业和农业废弃物对生物多样性的影响。本文还将简要地看一个案例研究在荷兰生物燃料的影响。
过程涉及到泥炭地的排水,湿地和清除生物燃料原料种植土地的火可以破坏空气质量和温室气体排放(Righelato Spracklen,2007)。例如在东南亚,由于高需求在棕榈油生产、泥炭地也被排干来满足目标和结果,据估计,高达100吨的二氧化碳释放在每年每公顷和燃烧的泥炭地双倍或三倍的这个值(Righelato Spracklen,2007),以上负面影响地下和生物多样性。
The 2nd generation biofuels are generated from plant lignocellulosic material. Bioethanol is generated by processing the lignocellulosic plant material. Many perennial grasses, poplar, willow, forestry, agricultural waste products etc are also used to generate this 2nd generation biofuels The 3rd generation biofuels are produced from algae which might not compete with food crops, making it very viable and more promising to be used. But the 2nd generation and mostly the 3rd generation is not yet commercially viable as the technology is well advance and it is still undergoing development (Biemans et al., 2008).This essay will be looking at the likely effects or impact of biofuels on biodiversity namely the impact on habitat, impact on carbon sequestration, impact on water quality and quantity, impact of increased chemical use, and impact of forestry and agricultural waste on biodiversity. This essay will also briefly look at a case study of biofuel impact in Netherlands.
Processes involving drainage of peatlands, wetlands and clearing of lands by fire for biofuel feedstock plantation can be destructive with regard to air quality and greenhouse gas emissions (Righelato and Spracklen, 2007). For example in south-east Asia, due to high demand in palm oil production, peatlands has also been drained to meet the target and as a result, it has been estimated that up to 100 tonnes of carbon-dioxide are releases in a year per hectare and burning the peatlands doubles or triples this value (Righelato and Spracklen, 2007), negatively impacting both below-ground and above biodiversity.