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澳洲市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT:高度结构化

高度结构化的综合早期干预儿童节目的ASDs,如由Lovaas在加利福尼亚大学的洛杉矶年轻的自闭症项目,很大程度上依赖于离散试验训练(DTT)的方法,但这仅仅是一个在许多技术领域使用ABA。DTT的方法是有用的在建立教学的基础技能,如注意,准备合规、模仿、学习和歧视,以及各种各样的其他技能。然而,DTT已经因为问题与学习行为泛化到自然环境中,由于自发使用高度结构化的教学环境不是自然的成年子女互动代表批评。传统的ABA技术已被修改,以解决这些问题。自然行为干预,如附带教学和自然语言范式/关键反应训练,可以提高概括的技能。 功能性行为分析,或功能评价,是基于行为的有害行为治疗的一个重要方面。大多数问题行为服务于某种类型的自适应功能,并增强其后果,如实现(1)成人注意,(2)所需的对象,活动或感觉,或(3)逃离不希望的情况或需求。功能评估是一个严谨的,经验为基础的方法收集信息,可以用来最大限度地提高行为支持干预的有效性和效率。它包括制定一个明确的描述问题行为(包括频率和强度);确定的前因、后果,以及其他环境因素的影响,保持行为;发展假设指定行为的激励功能;收集直接的观测数据对假设进行检验。功能分析也很有用,在确定来路和后果,与频率增加的理想行为,使他们可以用来唤起新的适应行为。

澳洲市场营销代写ASSIGNMENT:高度结构化

Highly structured comprehensive early intervention programs for children with ASDs, such as the Young Autism Project developed by Lovaas at the University of California Los Angeles, rely heavily on discrete trial training (DTT) methodology, but this is only one of many techniques used within the realm of ABA. DTT methods are useful in establishing learning readiness by teaching foundation skills such as attention, compliance, imitation, and discrimination learning, as well as a variety of other skills. However, DTT has been criticized because of problems with generalization of learned behaviors to spontaneous use in natural environments and because the highly structured teaching environment is not representative of natural adult-child interactions. Traditional ABA techniques have been modified to address these issues. Naturalistic behavioral interventions, such as incidental teaching and natural language paradigm/pivotal response training, may enhance generalization of skills.
Functional behavior analysis, or functional assessment, is an important aspect of behaviorally based treatment of unwanted behaviors. Most problem behaviors serve an adaptive function of some type and are reinforced by their consequences, such as attainment of (1) adult attention, (2) a desired object, activity, or sensation, or (3) escape from an undesired situation or demand. Functional assessment is a rigorous, empirically based method of gathering information that can be used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support interventions. It includes formulating a clear description of the problem behavior (including frequency and intensity); identifying the antecedents, consequences, and other environmental factors that maintain the behavior; developing hypotheses that specify the motivating function of the behavior; and collecting direct observational data to test the hypothesis. Functional analysis also is useful in identifying antecedents and consequences that are associated with increased frequency of desirable behaviors so that they can be used to evoke new adaptive behaviors.