The Gettier problem fundamentally demonstrates the problem of luck in the Tripartite Theory and thus shows how justified true belief doesn’t necessarily mean knowledge. I will present this through the following Gettier-style example: Susie walks past the same clock everyday on her way to class at 2pm. Today, as she walks past, the clock indeed says 2pm and she has no reason to believe otherwise since the clock is well maintained and has always been right in the past. Susie has justified true belief. However, unbeknownst to Susie, the clock stopped 12 hours earlier at 2am. So whilst Susie believes the clock reads 2pm, it actually reads 2am. Thus, the fact that the clock stopped at the time it did is purely down to luck. So Susie’s belief fails to be knowledge. If knowledge were to be gained via a causal connection, the problem of luck would essentially not exist as the agent would have acquired knowledge through a reliable, cognitive process. The purpose of the causal theory is to reinforce the Tripartite Theory but with the addition of a clause that states that a causal chain between beliefs and truths is required for knowledge. Goldman argues that perception is one such mechanism that can allow a causal connection and thus justify one’s true beliefs. He states in his 1967 paper “A Causal Theory of Knowing”; “Perhaps the simplest case of a causal chain connecting some fact p with someone’s belief of p is that of perception” (Goldman 358). Goldman uses the example of the vase to reinforce his argument about perception which is put forth as follows: S sees a vase but that vase is actually being hidden by a laser photograph of a vase. Because of the photograph, S believes that there is a vase in front of him. Goldman argues that in actual fact, S does not really see the vase because of the lack of causal connection that exists between S’s belief and the real vase. So ultimately, what Goldman is saying is that knowledge acquired by sight requires some sort of causal connection for it to truly be knowledge. And so the Gettier problem is essentially resolved, according to Goldman, with the addition of the causal connection clause.