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澳洲悉尼论文代写:罗伯特·奥本海默

当罗伯特·奥本海默目睹三一原子弹试验时,他痛苦地叫道;他帮助设计并促成了一个测试。自然科学是一个充斥着道德困境的领域。以奥本海默本人为例,他帮助设计和发明了原子弹,导致数千人死亡,两个世卫组织城市被消灭,数百万未出生的孩子毁容。奥本海默本人觉得自己对他帮助造成的混乱负有直接责任,但问题很简单:他是否有责任利用自己的知识实现其不可避免的最终目标,实际上,参与曼哈顿计划的其他科学家是否也有责任?这个项目本身的责任能如此容易地由受委托的科学家来承担吗?康德的义务伦理学认为,主体的普遍性导致人们质疑知识是否需要共享。这不是一个简单的核物理知识问题,而是所有知识的问题,这个问题的答案显然是积极的。知识需要共享,因此,作为人类,我们可以在一个对全世界都有影响的领域中共同前进,一个拯救生命、改善生活、集体带来利大于弊的领域。最后,虽然拥有知识涉及到一定的道德责任,但如果比另一种更糟糕的话,那就是储存知识并将其留给自己:分享知识并加以利用。例如,设想一下,发明了小儿麻痹症疫苗的乔纳斯·索尔克(Jonas Salke),以及他对这种疫苗可能产生的广泛影响的理解,拒绝为其申请专利,实质上是让疫苗免费。因此,在康德的伦理体系下,知识的共享对于实际的进步是至关重要的:相反的情况阻碍了进步,迫使每个科学家在真正的研究发生之前都要处理同样的瓶颈和突破。

澳洲悉尼论文代写:罗伯特·奥本海默

“I am become death, destroyer of worlds,” Robert Oppenheimer cried in anguish when he witnessed the Trinity Atom bomb test; a test he helped design and facilitate. The Natural Sciences are an area that is rife with ethical dilemmas. Consider the case of Oppenheimer himself, a man who helped design and invent the Atom bomb which was responsible for the death of thousands, the eradication of two who cities, and the disfigurement of millions of unborn children. Oppenheimer himself felt directly responsible for the chaos he had helped cause, but the question that arises is simple: Was he responsible for using his knowledge towards its inevitable end goal, and indeed, were any of the other scientists involved in the Manhattan project? Can blame for the Project itself be assigned so easily to the scientists commissioned? Under Kantian Deontological ethics, universalization of the subject leads one to question whether or not Knowledge needs to be shared at all. It is not a simple question of knowledge in Nuclear Physics, but of all knowledge, and the answer to this question is plainly positive. Knowledge needs to be shared so we, as humanity, can collectively move forward in a field that has implications around the world, a field which saves lives, improves living and, collectively, causes more good than ill. In the end, while there is a certain ethical responsibility involved with the possession of knowledge, hoarding knowledge and keeping it to oneself if plainly worse than the alternative: Sharing it and putting it to use. Consider, for example, Jonas Salke, the man who invented the Polio vaccine, and understanding the widepsread impact it would have, refused to patent it, essentially making the vaccine free. Under Kantian ethical systems, therefore, the sharing of knowledge is vital towards actual progress: The converse halts progress and forces every scientist to deal with the same bottlenecks and breakthroughs before any real research can take place.