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澳洲西悉尼大学论文代写:城市服务

提高可访问性就业、教育、卫生、和其他城市服务是必要的改善城市贫困人口和低收入家庭的福利。尽管机动化的速率增加在发展中国家,城市贫困人口的大部分发展中国家没有负担得起私人机动化交通的手段。城市贫困人口依靠公共交通需要机动交通工具的旅行。因此,公共交通中起着至关重要的作用在维持和改善城市贫困人口的福利为数百万提供流动性。过去几十年见证了一个连续减持在公共交通在巴基斯坦政府削减公共服务,以平衡他们的书。当政府资助的公共交通从街头消失,私营部门介入提供运输服务,这还远远不能满足需求的高效的提供优质的服务和安全。(海德尔和Badami,2006)

最近,省级政府在巴基斯坦已经在着手bus-franchising计划,提供专属服务运营商的权利在专用线路按照公众的要求。运输经营者,作为回报,保证一定的服务水平来满足公众的期望考虑到健康和安全方面。在旁遮普,例如bus-franchising计划了数以百计的新巴士现在在省在intra-urban航行路线。

使用文献综述的方法,本文主要关注巴基斯坦的道路公共交通系统。研究区包括旁遮普的省份。本文考虑不同方面如文档的机遇和约束。,私有化和特许经营的公共交通。

澳洲西悉尼大学论文代写:城市服务

Improving accessibility to employment, education, health, and other urban services is necessary for improving the welfare of the urban poor and low-income households. Although the rate of motorization is increasing in developing countries, the bulk of the urban poor in the developing world do not have the means to afford private motorized transport. The urban poor rely on public transit for trips that require motorized transport. Thus, public transit plays a critical role in sustaining and improving the welfare of urban poor by providing mobility to millions. The past few decades have witnessed a continuous disinvestment in public transit by governments in Pakistan who have cut public services in an attempt to balance their books. When the government funded mass transit disappeared from the streets, the private sector stepped in to provide transit service, which left much to be desired in terms of efficient provision of quality service and safety. (Haider and Badami, 2006)

Recently, the provincial governments in Pakistan have embarked on bus-franchising schemes, which have offered exclusive service rights to operators on dedicated routes as per the requirement of public. The transport operators, in return, guarantee a certain level of service to meet the expectation of public taking into account the health and safety aspects. In Punjab, for example, bus-franchising scheme has delivered hundreds of new buses now plying on intra-urban routes all across the province.

Using a literature review approach, the paper focuses on the on road public transportation system of Pakistan. The study area comprises the province of Punjab. The paper documents the opportunities and constraints considering different aspects e.g., privatization and franchising of public transportation.

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