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澳洲心理学论文代写:社会理论家的影响

在这篇论文中,鲍比的依恋和育儿理论将与其他理论家如鲁特和安斯沃思的补充一起概述。从这里我们将看到,自上世纪50年代以来,家庭单元的演变是如何受到这些理论、福利政策和社会理论家的影响的,这些理论影响了英国的家庭生活和育儿实践。鲍尔比将依恋描述为婴儿和主要照顾者之间的纽带。它的特征是为了满足婴儿的需求和情感发展而形成的互动模式。Bowlby指出,与母亲分离的儿童在不寻常的情况下(如住院)表现出明显的痛苦。在研究更不正常和更痛苦的情况时,他试图阐明对正常情感依恋发展的理解,以及中断如何会对孩子的情感和成年期造成伤害。鲍尔比认为,母亲的存在对于婴儿来说就像提供基本的食物一样重要。他的结论使他推定,与母亲分离的痛苦在婴儿中是普遍存在的。鲍比把这种痛苦描述为遵循婴儿抗议的模式,接着是绝望,最后以最终的超然而告终。“分离焦虑”一词是由动物行为学的生存技巧引起的,在这些技巧中,行为模式使幼动物得以生存。这些想法影响了Bowlby,他提出了一个重要的时期,一到五年的依恋,这在历史上对生物生存是至关重要的,如果它们没有到位,那么情感和智力问题就会在成年期出现。

澳洲心理学论文代写:社会理论家的影响

In this paper, Bowlby’s theory of attachment and child care will be outlined along with additions from other theorists such as Rutter and Ainsworth. From this we will see how the evolution of the family unit since the 1950s has been affected by such theories along with welfare policy and social theorists which have influenced family life and childcare practices in the UK.Bowlby described attachment as the bond that develops between a baby and its primary caregiver. It is characterised by the interaction patterns which develop in order to fulfil the infants’ needs and emotional development. Bowlby noted the apparent distress in children separated from their mothers in unusual circumstances e.g. hospitalisation. In studying the more abnormal and distressing situations he attempted to shed light on an understanding of normal emotional attachment development, and how a disruption could prove damaging to the child emotionally and through to adult maturation.Bowlby suggested that the presence of the mother was just as crucial to the baby as being supplied basic needs such as food. His conclusions led him to postulate that the distress at separation from the mother was universal in babies. Bowlby characterised this distress as following the pattern of infant protest, followed by despair and ending in eventual detachment. The term ‘separation anxiety’ was brought about echoing ethological survival techniques in which patterns of actions enable survival of young animals. Such ideas influenced Bowlby in postulating a significant period attachment of one to five years which was imperative historically to biological survival, and if they were not in place then emotional and intellectual problems would occur in adulthood.