Yalch and Spangenberg (1988; Yalch 1988) conducted research that improves on the Milliman studies. They compared the effects of foreground music (Top 40) and background music (instrumentals) as well as a no-music treatment in a department store setting. One of the only behavior related differences between the two music treatments was that younger shoppers (under 25) thought they had spent more time shopping in the easy listening condition whereas older shoppers perceived they had shopped longer when the Top 40 was being played.
Bitner's (1992) model of the Servicescape, which focuses on music as just one of a key component of physical environmental dimensions influencing the behavior of customers and employees within a service environment. Bitner's model explores the broader domain of nonverbal communication within service environments, and portrays the way in which environmental dimensions can have an effect on the cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses of both customers and employees. This ultimately impacts on behavioral responses such as duration of stay, amount purchased, exploration of the store environment, and likelihood of return. Environmental dimensions include the use of functions, space, symbols, color, design, signs, artifacts, and ambient conditions. Under the category of ambient conditions are included temperature, air quality, noise, odour, and music.
The musicscape is a detailed focus on the effect of just one of these ambient conditions, the music variable. Musicscape concentrates only on customer response and behavior within the service environment. It is focused only on the musical elements which have been explored in service environment empirical studies.
It highlights the significant relationships which previous studies have discovered, as well as highlighting areas where no significant relationship has yet been confirmed (e.g. between musical tempo and perceived duration).