According to Wikipedia, Foreign Policy can be essentially defined as the scrupulous set of goals which outline how a nation will interact economically, militarily, socially and politically in the international scene and also to a smaller scope how a country will interact will other non-state actors. Foreign Policy is also known as international relations policy (Wikipedia). However, it should be noted that the process by which foreign policies are created and executed is known as Foreign Policy (Goldstein 2006).
Foreign Policy process can be defined as the branch of political science which deals with the hypothesis, maturity and practical studies concerning the processes and outcomes of foreign policy (Wikipedia). According to Goldstein and Pevehouse, “Generally Scholars of International relations are less concerned in the Foreign policies but are more concerned in the foreign policy process”. This is because the process of foreign policy explains the way foreign policies are implemented and executed. According to Goldstein and Pevehouse, This process is essentially a decision making process. In International relations there is no single factor determining the outcome of foreign policies. The outcome is reached by bargaining of various influences. These are Individual and Domestic influences. These influences essentially are the reasons for the outcomes of foreign policy process. These influences operate from the individual and domestic levels of analysis.
The Individual influence that determines foreign policy process outcomes is essentially the individual decision maker. The individual decision maker in foreign policy process is an individual of importance for example the President or Prime Minister. Every Foreign Policy process outcome either intended or not intended comes as a result of the decisions made by the individual decision maker (Goldstein 2006). For Instance, the decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 was taken by President Harry Truman. If he did not drop that bomb and cause about 100,000 civilians to die, it will have resulted in the continuation of war between the United States of America and Japan and more American deaths. Truman chose and although people approved his action, some people also condemned it showing that an individual decision maker has to decide and also take consequences for his/her actions.
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