留学生论文的引言部分怎么写?引言写作技巧来啦

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留学生论文的引言通常指正文的开头,主要是提出正文中的研究问题,引导读者阅读和理解全文。 前言是对论文的总体概述,也是读者在阅读正文时最先接触到的部分。 既要向读者简要介绍论文的内容或相关背景,又要引起读者对本文的兴趣。 留学生论文的Introduction部分一般包括你想通过这篇论文解释什么问题,有什么新发现,是否有学术价值等问题。 下面小编为大家整理了一份详细的入门写作攻略,并提出了同学们在写作中常犯的几个错误,希望对大家有所帮助。

引言部分是论文的第一部分,其作用是引入论文的背景、目的和意义。引言部分通常包括以下内容:

  1. 背景:介绍论文所涉及的研究领域的背景信息,如历史、发展状况、现状等。
  2. 目的:说明论文的目的是什么,描述论文所要解决的问题或实现的目标。
  3. 意义:解释论文的研究成果对该领域或社会的意义,即为什么该论文值得被撰写。

在写引言部分时,应注意以下几点:

  1. 应尽可能使用简明扼要的语言,避免使用过多的专业术语。
  2. 引言部分应保持中立,不应带有个人观点或偏见。
  3. 引言部分应尽量详细地介绍背景信息,但不要过于详尽,避免论文开头过于累赘。
  4. 应引用相关文献,但不要过多地引用,避免论文开头过于杂乱。

总之,引言部分应简洁明了,使读者对论文的背景、目的和意义有一个清晰的了解,为论文的其余部分打下基础。

 

一、引言的写作方法

1.自问自答

假设自己是读者,看到标题后脑中立即浮现哪些问题,这些问题即是introduction的思路方向,对于问题的解答自然也就是introduction的内容。

例如论文标题:

Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America.

心中产生的问号,例如

- How did white control of education reinforce slavery?

- How did Douglass and other enslaved African Americans view education while they endured slavery?

- And what role did education play in the acquisition of freedom?

- Most importantly, consider the degree to which education was or was not a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

2.前言后写

不建议先写引言的原因有二。其一,提笔时容易没有思路,绞尽脑汁浪费时间。其二在写body的过程中容易迸发出新的想法,延伸后可能和当初写的引言大相径庭,因此建议大家将引言最后和结语一起书写。

当然有的学生把引言当做指路标,没有引言就没法进行body的书写。这种情况建议大家只写一个大致的提纲,不要花费过多时间纠结,等body写好后再返工引言。

3.吸引眼球

引言的初级标准是清楚明了,高级标准则是妙趣横生。为此小编有几个小妙招。

有趣的例子(An intriguing example)

例如:Douglass writes about a mistress who initially teaches him but then ceases her instruction as she learns more about slavery.

发人深省的引言(A provocative quotation)#p#分页标题#e#

例如:Douglass writes that “education and slavery were incompatible with each other.”

名人警句有时候在学术文章中效果可能不是非常好,这种情况可以使用文献中人物的引经据典。

使人琢磨的情景(A puzzling scenario)

例如:Frederick Douglass says of slaves that “[N]othing has been left undone to cripple their intellects, darken their minds, debase their moral nature, obliterate all traces of their relationship to mankind; and yet how wonderfully they have sustained the mighty load of a most frightful bondage, under which they have been groaning for centuries!”

二、不提倡的引言写法

1.假大空

英文写作和国内的散文不同,最忌讳的就是用华丽的辞藻堆砌没有实质内容的虚话,在外国人眼中就是思想匮乏充字数。

反面案例:Slavery was one of the greatest tragedies in American history. There were many different aspects of slavery. Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people.

2.重复解释题目

详细的分析题目是不错的策略,但如果只是替换单词的重复解释,效果会适得其反。还记得老师讲雅思小作文和大作文时,introduction的书写就是用相近词来替换标题中的单词,再把语句结构作调整,说好听了是“应试技巧”,难听了真是误人子弟。

反面案例:

标题:Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America.

前言是:The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass discusses the relationship between education and slavery in 19th century America, showing how white control of education reinforced slavery and how Douglass and other enslaved African Americans viewed education while they endured. Moreover, the book discusses the role that education played in the acquisition of freedom. Education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

3.字典定义

有的同学喜欢把标题中的几个key word摘取出来,逐个做定义解释。Come on,翻字典的活谁都可以干,换点新鲜的?

如果能结合着自己的研究领域,赋予这些key word一些自己的定义理解,或者所找到的文献中的定义理解,那就把所谓的“定义”变得更加有趣。#p#分页标题#e#

反面案例:Webster’s dictionary defines slavery as “the state of being a slave,” as “the practice of owning slaves,” and as “a condition of hard work and subjection.”

留学生论文写作要如何写好前言和结语?(introduction&conclusion)

4.“Dawn of Man”

和假大空相似也是中国学生比较偏爱的,喜欢扯人类起源历史,宇宙运转等等。

反面案例:Since the dawn of man, slavery has been a problem in human history.

学生们通常认为范围越大,自己的话题提升的角度就越高。其实事实相反,文章确实要做话题的延伸和升华,方法详见下文结语。

5.介绍书籍:

小学生的写作手法:列举出这本书的作者、书名、书中文章的内容等基本事实。通常情况,导师对这些著作的客观事实可能了如指掌,况且这些事实不一定全部都和你的论点相关,所以不建议这种写作方法。

反面案例:Frederick Douglass wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, in the 1840s. It was published in 1986 by Penguin Books. In it, he tells the story of his life.

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