留学生作业代写 Economical power of culture
Economical power of culture industries has been increasing. It is now imperative issues for the developed countries as well as developing countries as the culture grows to be the source of new economic power. Consequently, it becomes a significant concern of policy makers since 1980s. Some case studies also show that the proper initiatives foster the economic situation for the cities of countries. The center to this paper is to illustrate how culture juxtaposes with industry, and induces economical power to the cities. This tendency can be found in certain industrial areas for example fashion business in Milan and Movie industry in Hollywood. In order to demonstrate this modern inclination of cultural industries, Firstly, the culture industries will be assessed in terms of terminology, characteristics, economical power. Secondly, the rationale why this economical power (buzz) is brought within the certain areas (cluster) will be suggested. Finally, the case study of music industry in Manchester and Liverpool will be followed.
According to the UNESCO's Creative Industries Mapping Documents (1998 and 2001), which suggested that the industries produced ￡57 billion in 1998 and ￡112 billion in 2001 revenue (DCMS, Mapping Document 2001). The global market value of creative industries radically enlarged from US $831 billion in 2000 to $ 1.3 trillion in 2005. It is estimated to grow up by 10 per cent by year. Creative industries are growing to be imperative components of modern post industrial knowledge-based economies. The importance of research regarding the commercial production of culture should be taken more seriously.
Creative Industries In The U.K.
As far as the government policy in regard to the creative industries goes, there is one term which associated with this movement: ‘Cool Britannia'. Actually, ‘Cool Britannia' was the song title by the ‘Bonzo God Goo Dah Band' in 1967. This term was later referred by rock bands, fashion designers, the Young British Artists and magazines. And, it turned into a media term that was used to describe the contemporary culture of the United Kingdom. In the 1990s, it became more prevalent during with the political movement of new Labour under Tony Blair.
The Labour's interest in the culture had initiated from 1960s (Black, 2006, p. 120). In 1964 Labour party promised ‘generous support for the Arts Council, the theatre, orchestra, concert halls, museums and art galleries' and in 1966 the Labour manifested that ‘access for all to the best of Britain's cultural heritage' as a hallmark of a civilized country'. But, it is not only Labour's preserve but also Conservative's awareness. In this regard, Conservatives argued that the country should compensate for deficit in private cultural sector and encouraged greater business generosity towards ACGB (the Arts Council of Great Britain). Since then, the government is interested in investing for Arts Council funding, regional initiatives, which was also a part of anxious not to lose ground on Labour (Carless, 1969, pp. 1 - 5).
Due to this political inclination of nurturing the culture sectors, the expenditure had been increasing by nearly 500% in 1960s (Black, 2006, p. 121). And, it is the biggest increase in state subsidy this country that has ever known (White, 1975, p.287). At first lots of subsidy flowed directly to the art sector such as the national museums and galleries. Later, the government spends the expenditure for the larger range of nurturing activities (e.g. educational purpose). This political concern became more solid throughout the years. In 1980s, while there was a downfall of conventional industries such as steel industries in Sheffield, textile industries in Liverpool, politicians and economists have seen the economical impact of the creative industries.
As Blair's labor party won the election in 1997, the important role of creative industries was firmly denounced by the government. Later on, the UK's DCMS (department of culture, media and sport) embarked on nurturing UK's creative asset and released Creative industries mapping study.
The U.K. government defined the creative industries as ‘those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property' (DCMS, 2001). The 2001 Creative Industries Mapping Document refers to the challenges in measuring the creative industries and included an undertaking to consider how to supply more appropriately and to investigate robust data on their activity. This groundbreaking DCMS work focused on the contribution to the economy from 1997 to 2000 and found out that there has been a 13 % annum growth in the industries over the period of 1997 - 2000. It also illustrated the increasing employment of the industries: IT & Communication (+14% p.a), Advertising (+10% p.a) and Design incl. fashion (+8%).
With this innovative research, DCMS selected thirteen segments as the creative industries:
; Music and theatre production
; The motion picture industry
; Music publishing
; Book, journal and newspaper publishing
; The computer software industry; photography
; Commercial art
; And the radio, television and cable broadcasting industries.
DCMS's Mapping Research has been investigating the data continuously which will be a reflex of the crucial decision about policy-making. In order to discuss further regarding these industries, we will look at the term of Culture industries and Creative industries, and the feature of the industries.