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Air Transport Industry Tourism论文代写:Capacity And Infrastructural Issues In Air Transport Industry Tourism

Air Transport Industry Tourism论文代写:在过去的几十年里,航空运输业的发展,从运送数十名乘客到几个目的地运送数以百万计的乘客在世界各地的每一天。第一家航空公司于1919在美国,它被称为粉笔国际航空公司(行者1994)。从那时起,成千上万的航空公司已被许可在世界各地的运输货物和人类交通。在航空业有增长的是科技的进步,在不同的地理位置,消除贸易壁垒促进(贝特曼2010)。私营企业和政府已经认识到了该行业的潜力,他们已经投资了数十亿美元的航空公司和相关服务部门,包括酒店业。这保证了大量的人和货物在不同的大陆上更方便和更快的运输。加强基础设施和航空公司和机场的能力,帮助行业利益相关者实现他们的目标。

The air transport industry has grown over the past few decades from transporting tens of passengers across few destinations to transporting millions of passengers across all parts of the world each day. The first airline began in 1919 in the US and it was known as Chalk international Airline (Walker 1994). Since then, thousands of airlines have been licensed across the world to transport cargo and human traffic. There growth in the airline industry has been facilitated by technological advancement and removal of trade barriers in different geographical locations (Bateman 2010). Private firms and governments have recognized the potential of the industry and they have invested billion of dollars in airlines and associated service sectors including the hotel industry. This has ensured that a larger number of people and goods are transported more conveniently and faster across different continents. Enhancement of infrastructure and capacity of airlines and airports has helped industry stakeholders achieve their goals.

However, there are various issues which face the airline industry and which threaten to derail the benefits accrued over the years. Most of these issues relate to infrastructural and capacity management as well as safety issues. There are also issues which revolve around business practices such as competition, finance and others. It is important to study these issues in order to develop recommendations which alleviate the barriers to growth of the air transport industry. This paper will analyze various issues which affect their air transport industry. The infrastructural and capacity issues as well as safety and other operational issues will also be discussed. Recommendations will be made on how to effectively deal with these issues and allow the growth of the air transport industry. The discussed issues will be summarized at the end.

Infrastructural issues in the air transport industry

Infrastructure is of core importance in the air transport industry. There are various support services and infrastructure which are needed for the efficient operation of airports across the world. Airport infrastructure includes ground handling equipment, air traffic control, airport lounges, aircraft hangars, people mover systems, terminals, rail links, runways and others. In the past five years, over $ 150 billion has been invested by airports across the world towards development of capital infrastructure. There are numerous Asian and European countries which are planning to expand their airport infrastructure due to increase air transport demand. In China alone, over 50 airports will be built in the next decade due to transport demand. Many other airports such as in the US have plans to expand and modernize current infrastructure in order to meet market demand and improve efficiency. However, these plans have been adversely affected by several factors such as terrorist threats and the global economic meltdown, both of which have an impact of reducing demand for air transport. Between 2008 and 2009, there was a steep reduction in the volume of passenger traffic although this stabilized in 2010. Passenger traffic increased by over 5% in 2010 and cargo transported by air increased by over 20%. The increase in air transport traffic without a proportionate increase in the airport infrastructure means that the infrastructure will be worn down at a very fast rate.

The increase in human and cargo traffic necessitates an increase in infrastructural investment in airports.


Funding is a major issue which affects infrastructural development in airports. Investment in airport infrastructure is a huge project which requires millions or even billions of dollars in investment. Funding is also a political process approved by Congress and due to the many challenges facing the US in terms of providing social care and services, there is massive under-funding of airport infrastructure. The US government has faced many challenges in the recent past some of which include the global financial crunch, financing wars and fighting terrorism, challenges in providing health care insurance, political battles between republicans and Democrats as well as other challenges. These challenges require government funds to be allocated for various causes which are deemed important for the people. For instance, bailing out companies such as GM and providing funds for health care is seen as crucial for ensuring social and economic stability for the nation.

Such causes are therefore deemed to be more important than other demands such as expansion of the air transport industry. The government therefore allocates more funds obtained from taxes to healthcare and the economy as opposed to investment in airport infrastructure. This is a major challenge facing the US government. In addition, aviation taxes are sometimes used to fund programs which are non-aviation which limits the funding which airport infrastructure receives. In the US, the Airport Improvement Program receives funds to invest in the aviation industry. Challenges in funding have led to over $3 billion collected for funding being spent towards non-aviation causes. This is done for various reasons including political causes which interfere with the efficiency of the air transport industry.

In order to expand and improve airport infrastructure and ensure efficiency in the air transport industry, funding should be geared towards improving and developing infrastructure which includes taxiways, runways, terminals, aprons, land purchases, noise abatements and others (Endres 2000). According to the Civil Aviation review Commission, the adverse effects of low funding on air transport infrastructure may lead to a gridlock in the air transport industry. There should be long and short term funding for airports. Long term funds should be geared towards promoting reliable air transport as well as reducing overall cost of transport. Research on the efficiency and needs of the air transport industry as well as potential tangible benefits of investing in the infrastructure should be undertaken in order to convince political leaders of the need to further invest in airport infrastructure. In addition, public-private partnerships should be encouraged to pool resources needed for expansion of air transport infrastructure.


There are various infrastructural issues which relate to personal privacy and freedoms of the US people. Due to the terrorism threats which emerged after September 11 attacks, more stringent checks have been placed in the air transport industry in order to prevent a similar attack (Hoffman 2002). These security measures include body scanners, x-ray checks, luggage limitations, more surveillance, development of terrorist threat databases and others. Some of these security measures such as surveillance, body and x-ray scanners as well as development of terrorist databases are viewed by many as an infringement on personal rights. However, many Americans are of the view that as much as terrorism is a threat facing America, personal freedom should not be surrendered at the guise of fighting terrorism. This poses a threat to fighting terrorism at the air transport modes.

There are many lobby groups which are against infringement of personal privacy by the government or law enforcers and these groups have sued the government in various states. This creates a dilemma for the government as it is expected to respect personal privacy and at the same time effectively fight terrorism. Inefficiency in fighting terrorism may result in other terrorist attacks, which may eventually make customers lose confidence in the mode of transport. Infringement of personal privacy is also costly to the law enforcers and the government since they are viewed as perpetrating acts which are not within the law. Proper legislation which analyzes personal freedom in relation to provision of personal security should be developed in order to ensure that the government has public goodwill in fighting terrorist in the air transport sector (Schrader 2006).

Capacity issues in the air transport industry

Air transport capacity issues are similar to infrastructural issues which face the air transport. However, these deal more with the volume of passengers and cargo and effective transportation of the same across different locations (Allee 2003). As it was discussed, there was a brief decline in cargo and passenger volumes after the September 11th attacks. After 2010, the volumes began rising at a steady rate. In spite of this increase, the air transport infrastructure did not expand to cater for this increase in volume. It is expected that within the next few decades, an air transport gridlock may be realized if air transport infrastructure is not expanded to increase its capacity. This is primarily caused by low capacity of existing airports (Keller 2002). There is limited infrastructure, personnel and service providers who are unable to deal with the current capacities being experienced in airports.

Increase in capacity is achieved through infrastructural expansion and hiring more staff and service providers to meet the needs of all air transport consumers (Bardi et. al. 2006). Although it is necessary to increase capacity, expansion is hampered by various issues including limited funding, challenges in meeting environmental expectations and scarcity in land resources. The length of time and huge resources required for airport expansion is another challenge. These are major problems which have made many airports be unable to increase their capacity through expansion. The limitation in land resource is a serious issue which has acted as a barrier to capacity expansion especially due to congestion which is experienced in many major cities (Cooper et. al. 2000). In is nearly impossible to acquire land for airport expansions. Although environmental lobbyists and support groups have genuine intentions of influencing the airport transport to embrace environmental conservation, some of the requirements made by these groups act as barriers to capacity expansion in airports. Controlling some forms of pollution and safeguarding communities living around airports has proven to be a difficult task.

In order to achieve capacity expansion and to meet the demand of consumers, it is important for a private-public cooperation geared towards airport expansion (Diller et. al. 2006). The private sector and government should mobilize resources required for expanding airports and increasing capacity. All stakeholders including environmental protection groups and local communities should be involved in such projects in order to ensure that each stakeholder need is met. It is imperative that research is undertaken to project future growth of the air transport industry to ensure that airport capacity is able to meet future market demand.

Safety issues

Although air transport may be regarded as the safest transport means, safety is a core concern in the airline industry. This is because aircraft incidents or accidents have a high probability of turning fatal in case they occur. Various factors have increased focus on safety in the airline industry over the past few years. These factors may be generally categorized into aircraft accidents and terrorism. Aircraft accidents may result from lightning, lack of information, engine failure, ice and snow, delamination, mental fatigue, bird strike, fire, volcanic ice and others. Terrorism is another single most important threat to air safety and it will be discussed in detail. Terrorism and aircraft accidents are accountable for over 80% of incidents which have affected airline safety in the last few decades.

Terrorist threats have risen since 2001 after terrorists used aircrafts as missiles in the US and caused destruction of the twin towers as well as thousands of fatalities in New York. Since then, many other airline incidents have been successfully implemented or prevented from occurring not only in the US but in many states across the world. Aircraft accidents are also a major cause of safety concerns in the airline industry. Hundreds of thousands of live shave been lost as a result of aircraft accidents with one of the major accidents being a 1977 Tenerife accident in Spain in which over 570 people died after two aircraft collided on the ground. As a result of the various safety issues facing the airline industry, technological innovations have been made to prevent danger from terrorism and as well as prevent accidents to ensure the safety of cargo and humans on board aircraft. These safety issues and technological trends to mitigate their occurrence will be discussed in more detail below;

Terrorist threats

It has been discussed that terrorism is a major threat affecting air travel. In 2001, over 2,000 people died after terrorists hijacked aircraft and used them to destroy buildings in the United States. There have been many subsequent attempts by terrorist to hijack planes although most of these have been unsuccessful. For instance, in 2010, a Nigerian national was arrested while attempting to detonate an explosive device in the US. If the device had gone off, hundreds of crew and passengers would have lost their lives. Even before 2001, there were many aircraft hijackings which were linked to several terrorist groups operating across the world. Some of these incidents ended up with fatal injuries while some were resolved after governments gave in to the demands of terrorists. In addition, some terrorist incidences such as the 1976 hijacking of an Israeli plane ended after a successful rescue operation of hostages.

Due to the realization of terrorism as a major threat to air travel, several technological innovations and procedures have been developed to prevent terrorist attacks. These include screening of passengers using air transport in order to identify high risk people. Homeland Security in the US has developed profiles and databases of people suspected of having terrorism links and these are shared with airline personnel. Such passengers are listed in a “no fly list” and they are unable to access air transport. This move has helped prevent another terror attack in the air transport industry. Other measures applied to deal with terrorist threats include banning the use of any objects which may be used as weapons or means of concealing weapons, x-ray screening of passengers and their luggage, presence of security officers on board flights and passage of harsh laws against terrorism. The success of these procedures and technology has prevented another major terror attack on the air transport industry.


Accidents are another major safety concern in the air transport industry. This is because most air transport industry accidents are fatal. Aircraft accidents may result from lightning, lack of information, engine failure, ice and snow, delamination, mental fatigue, bird strike, fire, volcanic ice and others. A combination of machine and human factors are usually attributable to airline accidents and incidents. For instance, engine failure may be caused by machine failure while mental fatigue is a human factor. As a result of the realization of the dangers of air transport accidents, various technological innovations have been made to address and reduce probability of accidents in this industry.

Among the first innovations were navigation aids which guide pilots when taking off, landing and when in the air (Bergel 1982). These use a combination of radio-technology, radar and satellite technology. Other technology used to control aircraft accidents include black boxes which record the conversation of pilots in the cockpit and help in investigating air transport accidents. Ground support in airport operations has been outsourced by many airlines in order to increase efficiency and prevent occurrence of accidents. In the military, there are innovations such as “ejection chutes” which enable pilots eject from the aircraft once they lose control of it.

Environmental issues

The dangers of environmental degradation have been recognized by many people across the world in the recent past. Many lobbyists have educated the public on the dangers we face as a result of polluting the environment and exhausting available resources. Evidence from natural occurrences such as extreme weather, melting of ice, drought and others have been linked to environmental destruction. As a result, consumers have begun moving away from consuming products which adversely affect the environment. There is demand for “green” products which have minimal adverse effects on the environment (Changnon & Bell 2000). The air transport industry has significant impacts on the environment. Aircraft pollute the environment through air pollution, noise pollution and others. Consumers are therefore willing to use services from airlines which take environmental concerns seriously. In addition, governments are under pressure from the public to enforce regulations and laws which encourage environmental conservation in the airline industry. This shows the importance of discussing environmental issues in the air transport industry.

During the past decade, there has been a 10% increase in consumption of jet fuel. Globally, over 3% of all carbon emissions are traced to the air transport industry (Hansen 2000). The air transport industry consumes over 30% of all oil produced in the world, yet oil is the primary cause of carbon emissions. Each year, the air transport industry consumes over 200 million tones of jet fuel which represents over 3% of carbon emissions which eventually contribute to global warming. This figure is set to double in the next five decades since demand for air transport is increasing each year. In line with these facts, the air transport industry has taken several measures to decrease the levels of emissions and pollution of the environment.

Technological innovations have enabled aircraft reduce levels of noise pollution. These innovations have also encouraged more efficient use of fuel by aircraft which reduces the total emissions released by the air transport industry (Lerner & Wilmoth 2006). In addition, there are various treaties amongst the world which undertake to reduce the overall carbon emissions. These treaties include the Kyoto Protocol and they aim at reducing carbon emissions and reducing effects of global warming. Countries involved in these treaties have undertaken technological and legal measures including in the air travel industry to ensure emission targets are achieved. However, one of the biggest challnges in addressing environmental concerns in the air transport industry is that there are no viable alternative fuels which may be used by aircraft, yet jet fuel is among the single largest carbon emitters in the atmosphere.

Economic issues in the air transport industry

There are various economic issues which affect the air transport industry. One of the major issues facing this industry is the global financial crunch. The global financial crisis had an adverse impact on the air travel industry since it affected disposable incomes of consumers. Due to the effects of the crisis, many consumers began using cheaper transport alternatives such as road transport for passengers and water transport for cargo. This reduced the overall revenues realized by major airlines, with some reporting losses. Since many airports largely rely on air fare as a means of generating revenue, some were forced to ground aircraft and lay off employees in order to provide effective services. However, the air transport industry has recovered and more consumers are opting for this transport mode after the economy began to gradually recover from recession.

The global financial crunch also made it difficult for airlines to raise capital and access credit needed for capital investments (Chaudhury & Jean 2002). Due to the problems in the financial institutions which lend money to the air transport industry, there is inaccessibility of loans and financial grants needed to invest in the infrastructure and increase airport capacity. This makes it difficult for airlines to meet the needs of potential consumers of air transport. The financial crunch forced many airlines to search for alternative means of raising capital including giving public offerings in order to increase the capacity and infrastructure of airports.


There are various recommendations which may be given to improve the infrastructure and capacity of airports. Increasing capacity is only realized through building infrastructure and improving operations at airports. Some of these recommendations will be discussed below;

Investment in capital infrastructure

Massive investment in the air transport industry in terms of infrastructure should be made if airlines are to meet consumer demand (Mentzer 2008). It has been discussed that with the upward trend in consumer demand for air transports services, air transport may result in a grid lock if the present infrastructure is not improved and expanded. Expansion of the air transport system should be addressed urgently. Private-public collaboration should be used to raise funds for the airport expansion. Due to the many economic and social challenges facing many countries, government financing alone, may be unable to support airport expansion. However, cooperation between the government and private sector will raise funds which will benefit all stakeholders appropriately. Investment in capital infrastructure will de-congest the airports and increase their capacity to meet the needs of consumers.

Dialog between all air transport stakeholders

There are various challenges which the air transport faces as a result of difference in opinions of stakeholders. For instance, differences between the local communities and airports have made it difficult for airports to acquire land for expansion. Differences with environmental groups have also led to legal and other challenges which threaten to reduce gains made by the air transport sector. Differences with the public relating to security and privacy have also challenged the long term survival of this industry. In order to solve all these challenges, dialog between all stakeholders of the industry should be undertaken. The dialog should involve honest exchange of views and ideas which may improve the overall air transport sector. Each stakeholder should explain their expectations of the other and how airlines may provide effective services in environmentally friendly ways. The airlines should also seek to use corporate social responsibility programs to instill confidence in the local communities of their support for community projects.

Proper legislation

The conflict over national security and personal privacy and freedom has been discussed in the paper. Due to the threat from terrorism, law enforcers have infringed upon personal privacy especially in the transport industry. Although this is necessary, it should be done in such a way that a balance between personal freedom and public good is achieved. Legislation which balances these two essential aspects of society should be passed. This legislation will check the excesses by law enforcers and at the same time protect the country from terrorism threats. Proper legislation regarding the expectation of the air transport industry especially in terms of environmental concerns should also be passed in order to reduce conflict between the airline industry and environmental protection groups (Ruddiman 2006).

Streamlining processes by outsourcing

Improvement of airport capacity relies on improvement of infrastructure as well as processes within airports. Since the airport’s core objective is transportation of cargo and passengers, all non-core processes should be allocated to third parties with expertise and technology required to perform them efficiently (Greaver 2006). Outsourcing enables firms which are experts at functions they perform to undertake tasks in order to allow a company to carry out its core aim (Bragg, 2006). Already, many airports have embraced this strategy. Outsourcing more services such as transport of cargo within the airport, aircraft repair and maintenance, garbage disposal, security and other important functions of airports will allow more time to be allocated to an airport’s core concern. This will not only reduce the overall operating costs but it will also ensure that tasks are performed efficiently (Derose 2002).

Summary and conclusion

Various issues have been discussed in the paper. In spite of the growth of demand for services in the air transport sector, there have been various challenges which face the air transport industry. These challenges include infrastructure, capacity, environmental and economic challenges. Infrastructure and capacity challenges arise from lack of adequate infrastructure, personnel and equipment to process the transport demand by the market. This arises from lack of funds to support the huge capital investments required for such projects. Privacy issues also arise from the infringement of personal rights by law enforcers when fighting terrorism and protecting airports from attacks. Environmental challenges arise from the adverse environmental impacts such as pollutions which airports present to the environment. This challenge is difficult to deal with considering that jet fuel is one of the major environmental pollutants and it is used in large quantities when flying aircraft.

In order to deal with these challenges, various solutions should be implemented. Massive investment in the air transport industry in terms of infrastructure should be made if airlines are to meet consumer demand. Private-public collaboration should be used to raise funds for the airport expansion in line with the huge capital investment outlay needed to expand an airport. Dialog between industry stakeholders is also necessary since this will solve some of the challenges facing the air transport industry especially with regard to environmental concerns and privacy concerns. Legislation which balances national security and personal freedom, two essential aspects of society, should also be passed. This legislation will check the excesses by law enforcers and at the same time protect the country from terrorism threats. Finally, to improve airport capacity, the outsourcing strategy should be used. Since the airport’s core objective is transportation of cargo and passengers, all non-core processes should be allocated to third parties with expertise and technology required to perform them efficiently. This will not only reduce the overall operating costs but it will also ensure that tasks are performed efficiently. Implementing all these recommendations will also ensure that the air transport industry is able to meet the market demand in future.