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洛杉矶essay代写:哲学基础

洛杉矶essay代写:哲学基础

主要是,现象学家认为,知识和理解是嵌入在我们生活的世界。对我来说,Shaw(2002)crystalises现象学的命题时,她(2002,p. 130)问道,“发生什么事时,自发的、不可预测性和我们很惊讶自己能力不解释但是保持对自我意识进化的一个帐户的内心世界吗?换言之,现象学是从思想、情感、解释等复杂的网格中提取意义的艺术,构成了我们的生活经验。现象学家不相信知识可以合格或减少数量的统计(拜恩(2001)。这种拒绝的经验为“一个真正的来源的知识,是客观主义-直接反驳现代自然科学技术发展观,已经从欧洲北部文艺复兴以来(中心先进的现象学研究,1997);主张数据“感觉经验是只有对象和人类知识的最高准则(Sauvage,1911)。

根据现象(Woodruff Smith,2008),一个体验的中心结构是它的意向性;也就是说,“意识的特征,它是有意识的东西-即,它朝着一个目标导向”(包括æ百科全书,2009)。一个经验是指向一个对象,凭借其内容或意义(代表的对象),以及适当的使能条件。第一人称意义是查询的对象,经典的现象学的方法,可能会导致丰富的主观理解或意识的生活经验。

洛杉矶essay代写:哲学基础

Principally, phenomenologists believe that knowledge and understanding are embedded in our everyday world. For me, Shaw (2002) crystalises the proposition of phenomenology when she (2002, p. 130) asks, “what happens when spontaneity, unpredictability and our capacity to be surprised by ourselves are not explained away but kept at the very heart of an account of the evolution of sense-of-self-in-the-world?” In other words, phenomenology is the art of extracting meaning from the complex mesh of ideas, feelings, interpretations, etc; that make up our lived experience. Phenomenologists do not believe that knowledge can be qualified or reduced to numbers of statistics (Byrne (2001). This rejection of the empirical – as the ‘one true source’ of knowledge, is a direct rebuttal of objectivism – the worldview growing from modern natural science and technology that has been spreading from Northern Europe since the Renaissance (Center for Advanced Phenomenological Research,1997); which maintains that the data of ‘sense experience’ are the only object and the supreme criterion of human knowledge (Sauvage, 1911).

According to phenomenologists (Woodruff Smith, 2008), the central structure of an experience is its intentionality; that is to say, “the characteristic of consciousness whereby it is conscious of something – i.e., its directedness toward an object” (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009). An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions. Where first-person meaning is the object of the enquiry, the classical phenomenological methodology may result in an enriched subjective understanding or awareness of the lived experience.