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重要的是要考虑种族背景,作为相同的惩罚方法的结果可能会有所不同,在不同的社会和文化背景,由于这样的事实,惩罚可能在不同的文化中持有不同的含义。一些人可能会把惩罚视为生活中正常和必要的一部分,而另一些人则认为惩罚是严厉的,因为他们的环境和环境是严厉的。最近福临等人。(2005)看着惩罚及其对儿童的影响感知的平凡的关系。根据这项研究,在国家的物理处罚不常用导致更多的行为问题比在肯尼亚等国家,其中更频繁地使用体罚的国家。然而无论在任何一个种族的情况下,经历过体罚的孩子都更为积极和焦虑。事实上,通过对母亲和孩子的采访获得的信息,结果是有问题的,因为没有办法建立诚实的问题,回答和认真的研究是由参与者。如果西澳遇到学术问题或根本没时间写作业论文,请联系我们的 珀斯论文代写服务



Punishment may have different outcomes according to when punishment is implemented, the context in which it occurs and how often it is used.

It is believed that timing of punishment plays a significant role on how effective punishment is , it has been demonstrated that punishment is more likely to be more effective when presented earlier rather than later by Walters & Demkow (1963) and Walters, Parke, & Cane (1965). While Verna (1977) found that there were no significant differences in effectiveness of punishment between 10 year children whom received punishment straight away or those who received punishment 4 hours later. The differences in this findings may be due to difference in delay times, forms of punishment, and ages; Walters et al (1963) involved a delay in minutes (up to 10 minute delay), form of punishment was unpleasant sound, and median age of 6, while Verna (1977) involved a delay of 4 hours, form of punishment was withdrawal, and median age of 10.4. Therefore due to these differences we cannot conclude whether or not timing of punishment determines its effectiveness.

It is important to consider ethnic backgrounds, as the outcomes of the same punishment methods may vary across different social and cultural contexts, due to the fact that punishment may hold different meanings in different cultures. Some may see punishment as a normal and necessary part of life/growing-up, while others may view the slightest punishment as harsh according to their surroundings/context. Recently Lansford et al. (2005) looked at the relationship between the perceived ordinariness of punishment and its effects on children. According to this study in countries where physical punishment wasn’t commonly used lead to more behaviour problems than in countries such as Kenya where physical punishment was more frequently used. Nevertheless in either ethnic situation, children who had experienced physical punishment were more aggressive and anxious. The fact that information was gained through interviews of both mothers and children, the results are questionable because there is no way to establish how honestly questions were answered and how seriously the research was taken by the participants.

Also according to Banks (2002) the more often that punishment is used, the less effective it becomes with every use. Because although the punishment may be effective initially due to its shock value, with frequent use it becomes less and less effective, and in turn may even lead to increased behaviour problems in children.