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墨尔本RMIT论文代写:风险理论的影响

墨尔本RMIT论文代写:风险理论的影响

“治理”的概念是由法国哲学家米歇尔·福柯在后来的几年里,他生活的1970年代后期和他的死亡之间1984。他的概念提供动力的理解,不仅是国家的权力,从自上而下的方法,但在“更微妙的形式的功率通过一个机构,实践网络行使,程序和技术,起到调节社会行为”(约瑟夫2010:225)。在通过知识和话语,内在的个体的产生一种积极的方式是显而易见的,引导群体的行为,导致社会控制的更有效的形式。帕顿(1994)引用(2002)请写个人如何允许政府在距离通过鼓励和支持运动的自由和选择。因为权力是以自我为中心的个人在他们自己的自我治理中发挥作用。

对福柯的批评说,他没有意识到,权力是不等于所有。它也可以认为,他缺乏参考权力的行使有关种族,年龄,性别和阶级,特别是如何访问权力是不同的社会群体之间。库珀(1994:450)认为,关于“性”的技术力量对于种族主义和性别话语被使用。有人认为,福柯是不注意人们如何应对他们的日常生活中的话语(拉普敦:1999 B:102)。批评者还认为福柯缺乏意识的权力机构对个人和个人的行为在社会上了以下规则的公约(HOY:1986:151)。女性主义批评家如hartstock(1990:171-172)认为,福柯对权力的理解减少个体对象的力量比个人能抵抗。

福柯的工作在确定关系和权力机构如政府支持社会工作者来思考他们的职权结构(维护服务用户的压迫)在工作。赋权运用社会科学解决社会问题,是社会工作中的一种社会正义话语。它允许社会工作者在他们的实践中重新分配权力和知识,同时具有挑战性和打击不公正和压迫。授权开发能力的个人,同时强调个人的责任。皮斯(2002:137)认为,有一种假设是可以给人带来力量。因此,Braye和Preston Shoot(2003:100)讨论,授权是“受压迫的人们以力量和要求被听到”。由于知识在社会理解权力的中心,为了增强服务的用户必须有一个重新分配知识,“起义投降的知识”,如福柯(1977)。倾听服务用户,并允许他们有更多的控制权,寻求解决他们的问题或确定他们的需求在更广泛的社会背景下,是另一个例子的权力。我们属于许多社会团体,有些是由选择,有些是因为他们强加在我们身上。在这些群体中,一些人有或多或少的权力比别人。社会工作者需要注意的差异性和多样性,有更大的自我标签的风险意识,刻板印象和持有的主观信念。

墨尔本RMIT论文代写:风险理论的影响

The concept of ‘Governmentality’ was developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life between the late 1970’s and his death in 1984. His concept provides an understanding of power, not just in terms of the power of the state from a top-down approach, but in the “more subtle forms of power exercised through a network of institutions, practices, procedures and techniques which act to regulate social conduct” (Joseph 2010:225). Power is noticeable in a positive way through the production of knowledge and discourses that are internalised by individuals, guiding the behaviour of populations and leading to more efficient forms of social control. Parton (1994) cited in Pease (2002) writes how individuals permit government at a distance through being encouraged and supported to exercise freedom and choice. Because power is de-centred individuals play a role in their own self-governance.

Criticisms of Foucault argue that he fails to recognise that power is not equal to all. It can also be argued that he lacks reference to the exercise of power in relation to race, age, gender and class, especially how accessible power is between different social groups. Cooper (1994: 450) argues about the “character” of the technologies of power regarding racist and gendered discourses being used. It was argued that Foucault was not attentive to how people respond to discourses in their daily lives (Lupton: 1999 b: 102). Critics also believed that Foucault lacked awareness in the power institutions had over individuals and that individuals behaviour in society was down to following rules of conventions (Hoy: 1986:151). Feminist critics such as Hartstock (1990:171-172) believe Foucault’s understanding of power diminishes individuals to objects of power than individuals able to resist.

Foucault’s work on defining the relations and mechanisms of power like governmentality can support social workers to think about their position of power within the structures (that maintain the oppression of service users) in their work. Empowerment uses social science to solve social problems and is a social justice discourse in social work. It allows social workers to redistribute power and knowledge in their practice, whilst challenging and combating injustice and oppression. Empowerment develops capacities of individuals, whilst emphasising individual responsibility. Pease (2002:137) argues that there is an assumption that power is something that can be given and empowering someone is to confer. Therefore as Braye and Preston-Shoot (2003:100) discuss, empowerment is about “oppressed people taking the power and demanding to be heard”. Because knowledge is central to understanding power within society, in order to empower service users there must be a reallocation of knowledge, an “insurrection of subjugated knowledge” as indicated by Foucault (1977). Listening to service users and allowing them to have more control over seeking solutions to their problems or identifying their needs within the wider social context, is another example of empowerment. We belong to many social groups, some by choice and some because they are forced upon us. Within these groups, some have more or less power over others. Social workers need to be aware of difference and diversity and develop a greater sense of self awareness about the risks of labelling, stereotyping and holding subjective beliefs.

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