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莫纳什大学代写作业:作为自我调节的和平

莫纳什大学代写作业 Peace As Self Regulating

和平是由牛津字典(2010)定义的:“一个国家或一个没有战争或战争结束的时期”。对许多人来说,和平只是战争的反面,他们倾向于从它不是的东西来定义和平。在喀麦隆,例如,它是常见的说:“喀麦隆是一个非常和平的国家”。但是,我们如何才能在一个国家的和平谈,即使没有战争,人们死于饥饿和可预防的疾病,如霍乱,并没有获得饮用水?因此,我完全同意Johan Galtung(2007),他被公认为和平学的创始人,他的消极和平和积极的和平之间的区别。加尔东(2007)认为消极和平是“暴力”的情况下,而积极的和平是“和谐的存在,有意或无意的”。这意味着积极的和平,“比暴力的情况下,通过机会均等的社会正义的存在,公平分配权力和资源,平等保护、公正执法”

和平研究需要一个多元文化和多学科的话语(沃尔玛í牛鼻古斯曼áN,2005:1)。换言之,它涉及几个学科(每一个保留它的方法和假设),并鼓励不同文化的意见,而不是一个主流文化。一个跨学科、跨文化的方法也需要(沃尔玛í牛鼻古斯曼áN,2005:1-2)。这意味着,和平研究超越了传统的学科和文化之间的边界。最后,它需要一个跨学科的方法(Chadwick Alger,2007:300)。这是因为超越了学科的界限,有一个全面的学科建设。

此外,像那些认为自己是现实主义者,把和平作为乌托邦的追求,沃尔玛í牛鼻古斯曼áN(2005:2)承认,建议根据人类“我们组织我们的关系利用战争”的能力和竞争力。他继续说,完全遵守这个命题是低估了人类的能力。在这方面,作为人类,我们也必须以和平的方式组织我们的相互作用的能力(沃尔玛í牛鼻古斯曼áN,2005:3)。结合这一观点,联合国教科文组织宪法在其序言中指出:“战争开始在人类的头脑,它是在人类的头脑,和平的防御必须构建”。

如果和平不是一个乌托邦式的追求,因此,什么机制可以放在地方,它是自我可持续的?

莫纳什大学代写作业 Peace As Self Regulating

Peace is defined by the Oxford dictionary (2010) as: “a state or a period in which there are no war or war has ended”. For many, the word peace is merely the opposite of war and they tend to define peace from what it is not. In Cameroon, for instance, it is common to say: “Cameroon is a very peaceful country”. But how can we talk of peace in a state where, even though there is no war, people die from hunger and preventable diseases such as cholera, and don’t have access to potable water? Consequently, I fully agree with Johan Galtung (2007), who is widely acknowledged as the founder of peace studies, on his distinction between negative peace and positive peace. Galtung (2007) argues that negative peace is “the absence of violence”, whereas positive peace is “the presence of harmony, intended or not”. This connotes that positive peace is, “more than the absence of violence, the presence of social justice through equal opportunity, a fair distribution of power and resources, equal protection and impartial enforcement of law”

Peace study requires a multicultural and multidisciplinary discourse (Martínez Guzmán, 2005: 1). In other words, it involves several disciplines (each of which retains its methodologies and assumptions) and encourages views from different cultures rather than a mainstream culture. An interdisciplinary and intercultural approach is also needed (Martínez Guzmán, 2005: 1-2). This means that, Peace Studies go beyond the traditional borders between academic disciplines and cultures. Finally, it demands a transdisciplinary approach (Chadwick Alger, 2007: 300). This is because beyond the boundaries of the academic disciplines, there is a construction of a holistic discipline.

In addition, like those who consider themselves realists and perceive peace as a utopian quest, Martínez Guzmán (2005: 2) admits the proposal according to which as humans “we have the capabilities and competencies to organise our relationships by making use of war”. He continues by saying that, solely abiding by this proposition will be underestimating human capabilities. In this regard, as human beings, we also have the capabilities to organise our interactions in peaceful ways (Martínez Guzmán, 2005: 3). In conjunction with this view, the UNESCO constitution in its preamble states that: “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed”.

If peace is not a utopian quest, therefore what mechanisms can be put in place for it to be self-sustainable?

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