Psychology Essay 代写 概念转变模型
自从1970名研究人员意识到，学生有其他的概念或误解，难以消除。波斯纳和他的朋友们（1982）认为，这些误解需要通过正确的科学概念取代（波斯纳，罢工，休森& &Gertzog，1982，引用invosnidau和弗斯查菲尔，2004）。通过增加新的知识，什么是已知的改变一个人的观念发展成学习模式并命名为波斯纳，罢工，休森概念转变，和Gertzog（1982，引用休森，1992）。波斯纳等人（1982）认为，如果学生目前的概念是不恰当的，让他们欣赏新的概念，成功的学生必须取代他们现有的替代概念。这种更激进的概念变化是指调节。为了体验概念上的变化，波斯纳等人（1982）确定了四个主要条件。根据波斯纳等人。（1982）为了改变发生，第一次不满意必须发生与当前的概念（德里斯科尔，2005）。第二个条件是，新概念应理解。这意味着，一个人必须能够理解和知道什么新的概念意味着，以考虑新的概念，作为一个更好的解释经验比目前的概念。第三个条件是，新的概念必须出现似是而非的，最后的新概念必须出现富有成果的，也就是说，必须发现它有用的，它必须有建议的新的领域进行调查。从波斯纳和他的朋友的观点（1982），如果新的概念与现有的概念相冲突，那么它是不可能的或富有成果的学习者对现有的概念感到不满意。像这样，学习需要，旧观念被重组和更换新的（波斯纳et al.，1982，引述休森，1992）。然而，出现了一些批评对波斯纳的概念变化模型。许多评论家认为概念转变只关注学生错误的观念，忽视了生产力的想法，这误解不能作为他们似乎如此强大（卡拉韦塔和哈尔登，1994；史米斯，disessa，&罗歇尔，1993为引vasnedau，2004）。据卡拉韦塔和哈尔登（1994）、概念转变发生在一个更大的情境，教育，和社会/文化语境，也激励和情感方面，我们需要认识到，构建知识与社会互动的验证（司机那里，林奇和摩第哪，瑞克，1999；在1994；vosniadau和弗斯查菲尔，2004引用）。
Psychology Essay 代写 概念转变模型
Since 1970 researchers realized that students have alternative concepts or misconceptions that difficult to eliminate. Posner and his friends (1982) suggested that these misconceptions need to be replaced by the correct scientific concepts (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982, as cited inVosnidau&Verschaffel, 2004). Changing one's conceptions by adding new knowledge to what is already known was developed into a model of learning and named as conceptual change by Posner, Strike, Hewson, and Gertzog(1982, as cited Hewson, 1992). Posner et al.(1982) believed that if students' current concepts are inappropriate to allow them to appreciate new concepts successfully students must replace their existing alternative concepts. This more radical form of conceptual change refers accommodation. To experience conceptual change, Posner et al.(1982) identified four main conditions. According to Posner et al. (1982) in order to a change to take place, first dissatisfaction must occur with the current conceptions (Driscoll, 2005). The second condition is that new conception should be intelligible. It means that one must be able to understand and know what new concept means in order to consider the new concept as a better means of explaining experience than one's current conception. The third condition is that new concept must appear plausible and lastly the new concept must appear fruitful; that is, one must find it useful and it must have suggested new areas for investigation. From the Posner and his friends perspective (1982), if the new conception conflicts with existing conceptions, then it cannot be plausible or fruitful by the learner becomes dissatisfied with the existing conceptions. Like in that event, learning requires that old conceptions be restructured and replaced with the new (Posner et al., 1982, as cited in Hewson, 1992). However, several criticisms appeared against Posner's conceptual change model. Many critics claimed that conceptual change only focuses on students' inaccurate conceptions and ignores productive ideas, that misconceptions cannot be so powerful as they seem to be (Caravita & Halden, 1994; Smith, diSessa,& Roschelle, 1993 as cited Vasnedau, 2004 ). According to Caravita and Halden (1994), conceptual change occurs in a larger situational, educational, and socio/cultural context, it has also motivational and affective aspects, and that we need to recognize that knowledge is constructed and validated with social interaction (Driver, Asoko, Leach & Mortiner, 1994; Pintrich, 1999; as cited in Vosniadau&Verschaffel, 2004).