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斯文本科技大学代写论文: 被低估的性别和共和国法案

斯文本科技大学代写论文: 被低估的性别和共和国法案

有了一个新的总统掌舵,这是一个伟大的期望一年-无论是从团体反对或赞成在该国的大规模采矿。采矿业的主要参与者对政策变化持谨慎态度,但对采矿业的抵抗似乎在上升。另一个采矿法案,废除现有的采矿法织机在国会。土著妇女和各种妇女团体一直在积极的运动,以废除采矿法。由于这些事件现在在运动,本文对共和国法案7942或菲律宾采矿法的1995或的性别分析。在菲律宾的国家矿业政策框架内的定位的前景是不可能的-不幸的是。在发展的背景下,挖掘起着重要的作用,对国家工业化,有助于提升许多菲律宾人的生活。然而,可持续发展,没有性别的重点已被边缘化或排除妇女从它的好处,尽管他们的角色在再生产,补贴采矿发展。没有性别的重点,发展政策使女性在决策,社会经济活动和权力关系,显着地转化为采矿过程中看不见。本文接近共和国法7942使用的社会关系框架,揭示了性别,阶级和种族问题的分析,并受到国家矿业政策的影响。

菲律宾采矿法随着其实施的规则和法规的目的是复兴一个“生病的采矿业”之前,通过的岭7942,一些采矿法已经到位,因为西班牙殖民时期。最重要的这些采矿法包括皇家法令1867,1902有机的行为,1905的采矿法,联邦法137号总统令463和行政命令279。矿业法对国际货币基金组织和世界银行的结构调整计划投资自由化议程的响应(SAPS)。采矿业的自由化三个阶段由国际贷款机构所要求的最后:1)贸易自由化(辅佐);2)债务偿还(1983年至1992年),和3)快速放松管制、私有化和投资的自由化(1992)(卡萨菲律宾,2001,p. 2)。法律的最重要的部分,其中包括1)对外国所有权的限制等规定,创造一个更加开放的环境,因此“吸引力”的矿业对外直接投资(FDI)放松;2)自由的要求和事先知情同意(FPIC)社区文化祖先的土地之间;和3)的环境和自然资源部矿产和地质局的任务(denr-mgb)作为领导机构的控制和监督矿产开发。制定为一个采矿代码,将解决采矿业的失败收入,并最终面向出口。

斯文本科技大学代写论文: 被低估的性别和共和国法案

With a new President at the helm, it is a year of great expectations – both from groups opposed to or in favor of large-scale mining in the country. The main players in the mining industry are wary of policy changes but the resistance against mining has seemed on the rise. An alternative mining bill that repeals the existing mining law looms in Congress. Indigenous women and various women’s groups have been active in the campaign to repeal the Mining Act. As these events are now in motion, this paper makes a gender analysis of Republic Act 7942 or The Philippine Mining Act of 1995. The prospect of locating gender within the national mining policy framework in the Philippines is unlikely – and unfortunately so. In the development context, mining plays a significant role towards national industrialization which should contribute to the upliftment of lives for many Filipinos. However, sustainable development without a gender focus has marginalized or excluded women from its benefits, despite their roles in reproduction that subsidize mining development. Without a gender focus, development policies render women invisible in terms of decision-making, socio-economic activities, and power relationships that figure prominently into mining processes. This paper approaches the analysis of Republic Act 7942 using the Social Relations Framework to uncover how gender, class, and race issues are addressed and are impacted by the national mining policy.

The Philippine Mining Act along with its Implementing Rules and Regulations aimed the revival of an “ailing mining industry.” Prior to the passage of RA 7942, several mining laws have been in place since the Spanish colonial period. The most significant of these mining laws include the Royal Decree of 1867, the Organic Act of 1902, the Mining Law of 1905, Commonwealth Act No. 137, Presidential Decree No.463 and Executive Order 279. The Mining Act was a response to the investment liberalization agenda of the IMF-World Bank’s structural adjustment programs (SAPs). The liberalization of the mining industry was the last of three phases required by the international loan agencies: 1) trade liberalization (1980-83); 2) debt repayment (1983-92), and 3) rapid deregulation, privatization and investment liberalization (1992-present) (CASA Philippines, 2001, p. 2). Among the most significant portions of the law include 1) relaxation of restrictions on foreign ownership and other provisions to create a more deregulated hence “attractive” environment for mining foreign direct investment (FDI); 2) the requirement of free and prior informed consent (FPIC) among ancestral lands of cultural communities; and 3) the assignment of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Mines and Geosciences Bureau (DENR-MGB) as the lead agency to control and supervise mineral exploitation. RA 7942 was enacted as a mining code that will address the failing revenue of the mining industry and is ultimately geared toward exports.