In Bahamas, agritourism use forward linkages with agriculture and tourism by direct selling of agricultural products and services to the visitors and also backward linkages such as indirect approach using an intermediary to provide products to the tourism sector. These activities improve the income of farmers and finally helping for the rural development (Hepburn, 2008).
Schmitt (2010) has done a study on the farming women's agency, coping strategies, visions and wishes against the dynamic changes of the agricultural sector in the Franconian Jura in northern Bavaria, Germany. While agritourism has become an important permanent livelihood strategy for some farming families, it remains an additional income for others. Either way, it has turned out to be a source of women's growing self-confidence as well as a sustainable ingredient of regional development.
(Refer Mortan 2006 See End note)
Agritourism in Italy has been able to conduct broad and innovative product range, sophisticated Marketing systems and most importantly, extensive government supports. The Italian system was developed with a clear objective in mind: "To halt rural out-migration by keeping farmers on the land" (Porcaro, 2009).
As per Choo, (2012) agritourism can give farmers an opportunity to generate additional income and to be an avenue for direct marketing of the farm products to consumers. It can also help counteract social and economic problems of the farms and local residents (loss of income, increased expenses, globalization, and others (associated with the decline of traditional agriculture industries). While the financial advantages with respect to employment and wages are clear, agritourism development can also enhance the local quality of life. It can serve as an important source of tax revenues, which may lead to higher public services and lower local tax rates. Agritourism can also support conservation of local culture and traditions, helping to maintain the viability of small-scale agriculture (Choo, 2012).
In Turkey it was declared that agritourism is strongly supported as one of the rural development strategies. A number of agritourism enterprises are developing at local level with volunteer initiatives using the desires of local people and local administrations that want to benefit from the facilities of agritourism in Turkey. For example in, Karaburun and Ankara Villages, agritourism services such as accommodation, tasting and buying local foods by the urban people and administration to find extra income for them (Topcu-2007). Also, the BuÄŸday Association's 'Ecological Farm Holidays' project (Ta-Tu-Ta Project) in Turkey is a cooperative project conducted by volunteer farmers and non-governmental organization targeting to encourage ecological lifestyle. This project stated that farmers benefit from agritourism by producing and selling of organic products to the visitors.
Agritourism aids rural economic development by providing alternative use of farmland, increasing revenue of on-farm activities, improving business sustainability, and bringing economic revenue to rural areas both on-site and near the operation. Agritourism also has the potential for informal agricultural education between the owner/operator and the general population which has little to no direct contact with agriculture (Jolly and Reynolds, 2005).
A study of Nasers, (2009) in Iowa UAS found that the promotion of agritourism provides a beneficial relationship for local food systems as it helps to enhance the appeal of local foods. In order to challenge and rearrange the modern agri-food system, 'Local food' has become the social movement's unifying theme. In contrast, the "local food" paradigm highlights the importance of food quality and freshness, environmental protection, an individual connection to family and small scale farms, economic multiplier effects which occur when making local purchases and community self-reliance (Ostrom, 2006, p. 66). The demand for fresh produce continues to grow, offering producers the opportunity to increase their profits through direct marketing. Direct marketing provides a link between consumers seeking high-quality produce and producers who are seeking an opportunity to compete in the produce industry (Kuches et al.). In addition to linking the consumer to the producer, direct marketing allows the producer to bypass the traditional distribution network and earn a greater share of profits (Kuches et al.). As a form of direct marketing, agritourism creates opportunities for the producer to link with their consumer and directly market their products. Moreover, Agritourism is increasing rural vitality and stimulating new economic opportunities through the diversification of farm operations and increased revenue on-site and near the operations in Iowa (Norby and Retallick, 2012). Twe (2010) have reported that agritourism is increasingly being adopted in the United States as it gives a myriad of economic and intrinsic benefits to farmers, visitors and communities, keeps family farms in business and preserving American agricultural heritage, maximizing the productivity of farmland resources through their recreational use, and even improve the economic situation of local communities. Also agritourism is suggested to increase farm revenues and serve other farmer goals (Ollenburg and Buckley, 2007; McGehee and Kim, 2004; Nickerson et al., 2001). Farms that diversify into agritourism are likely to utilize existing resources or other low-input options (Fisher, 2006). Additional economic support for the farm business is especially important in the current time due to increased land values and agricultural input costs (Salamon, 2003; Busby and Rendle, 1999; Ilbery, 1991).
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