修改论文 The Support Of Organizational Culture To Organizational Strategy
当你走进一家酒店，一个度假胜地，一所大学，一家银行，你首先注意到什么。第一印象是什么告诉你，你刚才输入的组织？这将是多么的友好？这将是多么昂贵？什么样的行为是对你的期望？如何将员工的方法和处理你？现在仔细看看周围的物理环境-什么是积极的和消极的迹象，符号和信号，你得到了什么？这些究竟是如何被传送给你的？这些都是组织文化的各个方面。文化意识不仅会导致更有效的员工，而且可以得到更多的客户或客户，提高客户的忠诚度。组织文化有许多要素，但其中的三个要素-器物、价值观和假设是关键要素，组织成员的互动创造了器物、价值观和假设的集合，没有一个单一的元素可以建立企业文化。公司的文物是可观察符号和一个组织的文化标志，如公司的故事或传说，组织的物理布局和欢迎客人的方式，也是一种语言和身体的组织结构，一个神器可以作为员工手册或酒店标志作为正式或非正式的作为，在前面的大厅装饰。文物是很重要的，因为他们提供了一个公司的文化的最好的证据。在Hilton，有一个著名的故事，80%家酒店被关闭在美国大萧条时期。酒店的老板Conrad Hilton还告诉他的员工，不要忘了礼仪，微笑永远是属于旅客。大萧条后，希尔顿大酒店进入新的繁荣期，成为旅游业的领导者。（Charles Kelly 2010）价值观是稳定的，评价性的信念，引导员工偏好的结果或在各种情况下的行动课程，如同情，创新，合作，诚信，服务和创造力。价值观可以展示自己的企业战略，目标和期望的质量的形式。建立组织核心价值观可以用来指导原则，并希望员工坚持这些。例如：联想成立25000人民币在中国，警卫室的今天，联想是一个210亿美元的个人技术公司和世界第二大PC供应商。它的成功主要取决于其战略和企业文化，其核心价值的创新精神和客户服务，吸引更多的人才和客户，并帮助联想占据了全球市场。（联想2012）以及共同的价值观、企业文化是一个更深层次的元素共享的假设。这些都是无意识的感知或信仰，在过去工作的很好，他们被认为是正确的方式去思考和行动的问题和机会。共享的假设是如此根深蒂固，你可能不会发现他们通过测量员工。只有通过观察员工，分析他们的决定，并报告他们的行动将这些假设上升到表面。（史提芬，L 2008）
When you walk into a hotel, a resort, a university, a bank, what do you notice first. What do frist impressions tell you about the organization that you have just entered? How friendly it will be? How expensive it will be? What kind of behavior is expected of you? How will the staff approach and deal with you? Now look more carefully at the physical surroundings – what positive and negative signs, symbols and signals do you get? How exactly are these being transmitted to you? These are all aspects of organizational culture. Cultural awareness will not only lead to more effective staffs, but also get more customers or clients and increase the customers’ loyalty. There are many elements of organizational culture, but three of them – artifacts, values, and assumptions are the key elements, the interactions of organizational members creates the set(s) of artifacts, values, and assumptions, no single element can build corporate culture. Corporate artifacts are the observable symbols and signs of an organizational culture, such as the corporate stories or legends, the organization’s physical layout and the way guests are greeted, it is also a language and physical structure of the organization, an artifact may be as formal as an employee handbook or a hotel logo, or as informal as decoration in the front lobby. Artifacts are important because they offer the best evidence about a company’s culture. In Hilton, there is a famous story, 80% hotels were closed down during the great depression in America. The hotel’s owner – Conrad Hilton still told his staff don’t forget the etiquette, the smile is always belong to the guests. After the great depression, Hilton hotel lead into the new flourishing period and became the leader in tourism industry. (Charles Kelly 2010) Values are stable, evaluative beliefs that guide employees preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations, such as compassion, innovation, cooperation, integrity, service and the creativity. Values could demonstrate themselves in the form of corporate strategies, goals and desired qualities. Building organizational core values can be used to guide principles and wish the employees to insist to these. For example: Lenovo which was formed with 25,000 RMB in a guard house in China, today, Lenovo is a US$21 billion personal technology company and the world’s second-largest PC vendor. Its success mainly depends on its strategy and corporate culture, its core value – innovative spirit and customer service attract more talents and customers, which help Lenovo occupy the global market.( Lenovo 2012) Along with shared values , corporate culture consists of a deeper element – shared assumptions. These are unconscious taken for granted perception or beliefs that have worked so well in the past that they are considered the correct way to think and act toward problems and opportunities. Shared assumptions are so deeply ingrained that you probably would not discover them by surveying employees. Only by observing employees, analyzing their decisions, and debriefing them about their actions would these assumptions rise to the surface. (Steven, L. 2008)
Why do executives at Lenovo, Hilton hotel group and other companies pay so much attention to organizational culture? The answer is that they believe a strong culture is competitive advantage. Culture is one of the most precious things a company has, so the company must work harder on it than anything else.the effect of organizational culture depends partly on its strength. Corporate culture strength refers to how widely and deeply employees hold the company’s dominant values and assumptions. In a strong organizational culture, most employees across all subunits hold the dominant values. These values are also institutionalized through well-established artifacts, thereby making it difficult for those values to change. A strong corporate culture potentially increase a company’s success by serving three important functions: control system, which is deeply embedded form of social control that influence employee decisions and behaviors; social glue, which is increasingly important as a way to attract new staff and retain top performers; and sense-making process, it helps employees understand what goes on and why things happen in company.
In tourism industry, the organizational culture also play an important role in its daily business, the organizational culture will have impact on the customers’ decision, employees’ service, the company’s brand or reputation and the revenue. Organizational culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior. It comprises the basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors that a person learns continuously in a society. Today, most societies are in a state of flux. Culture is expressed through tangible items such as food, architecture, clothing, and art. In the minds of millions of travelers worldwide, “hotel” means “Hilton” a place where they know they will find warm hospitality, comfort, value and rewarding recognition. This brand strength, coupled with Hilton’s leading edge management systems, translates into an incredibly successful business model. Partnering with this iconic industry The culture of Hilton hotel group helps the corporate to attract more customers and increase their customers loyalty indirectly.