Intelligences Underlying Learners Speaking Skills Education Essay
Nowadays, the demr'd for mastering English has been increasing for years. In Indonesia, English is a part of lessons that learners have to learn since they are at Elementary school. Even, some learners have learned English since they are at the age of 3 with the expectation that they can master English as earlier as possible. Furthermore, English had been used widely in business and government since the freetrade policy was enacted among countries in the world. Therefore, English becomes a first requiremeni for many people to get a job. If they can not speak English, they will lose one opportunity to get a job. In short, we can conclude that English has become an important part of people's life today.
Learners at senior high school in Indonesia spend 4-5 hours per week to learn English. Of course, the length of the time is not enough to make the learners able to master the language because it is only 10 % of all lessons that they have study. As we know that to be able to communicate in English, we have to use the language as often as possible. It means that the more learners practice to speak English the more chance for them to master English. Moreover, speaking is a fundamental process in communicating with others. Unfortunately, many learners still find difficulties when they have speaking activities in the classroom. They are afraid of making grammatical mistakes that make them keep silent during the activities in the classroom, In addition. they prefer to use their first language when they have
speaking activities (Lawtie, 2001:1 available at http:llwww. teacbingenglisKorg.ukf think/speak/speak_ skills2.shtrnl). Obviously, these speaking problems may hinder the learners to develop their speaking skills which are needed to become good speakers.
We know that each learner is unique. Each of them has some abilities that differ from one to another. For example, there are two learners who have Mathematics test. Learner A gets better score than learner B. It is happened because learner A likes to work with number and formula. Meanwhile learner B gets bad score because he does not like to study Mathematics. Learner B likes to do art work such as painting or drawing picture. It makes him always get the best score in art activities. This condition shows that learner A and B have different abilities that help them in the school. These abilities were labelled as intelligence by some researchers. According to Gardner (1999:41-52) defined that there are eight intelligences that each learner has. Moreover, Gardner (1991) cited from Schmidt (2001) available at http://www.montville.netlwoodmont/cas/mi/) stated that learners can develop their intelligences throughout their lives. It shows that teachers can help the learners in developing their intelligences by giving the right encouragement. For example, teacher can conduct the activities that are appropriate with the learners' intelligences.
Unfortunately, many teachers did not pay attention to the various kinds of their learners' intelligences when they conducted the activities in the classroom. They only considered the most famous intelligences which are linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence (Gardner (1993) cited from Armstrong (2000) available at www.thomasarmsfrongconL.'mutipleintelligences.htm). They did not think over
other intelligences that learners may ha Iii CXKhb(W1 C(*Zld he the cau of the speaking problems that arise in the classroom because teachers conducted the speaking activities without considering the learners' intelligences. It made the learners felt unmotivated to study because they felt that the activities were not appropriate with the intelligences that they had. Teachers can overcome the problems by conducting the speaking activities that apply the learners' intelligences. The more intelligences are applied the better activities are conducted. By conducting the speaking activities which are suitable with the learners' intelligences, the speaking skills of the learners can be developed. Therefore, the researcher is interested to find out what kinds of intelligences that underlie learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kinds of speaking activities in the classroom.
1.2 Research Question
The question of the study is:
"What kinds of intelligences underlie learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kinds of speaking activities?"
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out what kinds of intelligences underlie learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kinds of speaking activities.
1.4 Method of the Study
In order to get the answer of the research question, this study used ethnography which studies about behaviours and characteristics of group of learners at SMA 38. As ethnography study, there are several information and data that are collected through classroom observation, teachers' interview, learners' interview,
field note, questionnaires, work samples (documentation) of the learners and classroom recording in order to identify what kinds of intelligences that supported learners' speaking skills in dealing with speaking activities.
1.5 Benefit of the Study
The result of the study may hopefully give the pictures of intelligences that support learners' speaking skills in dealing with speaking activities in the classroom. Thus, teachers take the learners' intelligence into consideration when conducting speaking activities in the classroom.
This chapter will discuss about the issues of intelligence, multiple intelligences, speaking skills, classroom speaking activities, and multiple intelligences related to speaking skills.
2.1 The Issues of Intelligence
In the nineteenth century, many experts and psychologists studied about intelligence. Among them were Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, and Howard Gardner. They found that each person has abilities that differ from one to another. These abilities are labelled as intelligence. As Brainy dictionary defines that, "Intelligence is the capacity to know or understand; readiness of comprehension; the intellect, as a gift or an endowment." (Available at http://www.brainy dictionary.eomlwords/inl intelligence 1 79466.html). Based on the definition we may conclude that intelligence is a set of abilities that people have since they are born which can help them during their lives.
There is a different view of intelligence whether it is inherited or not by some researchers. Richard J Herrnstein and Charles Murray cited from Gardner (1999:8) were the researchers who believed that intelligence is inherited. They did a research in a population and found that intelligence could be influenced by genetic factors. Meanwhile, there are some researchers who disareed of Herrnstein and Murray finding. For example, David Lazear (2000) stated that, "intelligence is not static at
birth" (p.2). He thought that intelligence can be changed during people lives. Furthermore, Silver, Strong and Perrini (2000:7) also stated that intelligence can be developed which means that it is not a fixed thing. It can be concluded that people's intelligence is inherited but it can be enhanced as long as it is given the right reinforcement.
Moreover, there are factors that influence the development of intelligence. According to Carolyn Ann Schmidt (200 1:3) available at www.montville.net! woodmont/cas/mi stated that there are three factors that affect the growth of intelligence. First, biological endowment that refers to genetic factors, heredity or some brain injuries that may influence the development of intelligence. Second, personal life history that relates to the experiences that people have with others. These experiences can increase or decrease the development of their intelligences during their lives. The last is cultural and historical background which includes the environment where they are born and raised.
After knowing that intelligence can be developed, many researchers tried to find how to measure the intelligence. The first researcher who believed that intelligence can be measured was Francis Galton in 1870. As cited from Gardner (1999) Galton stated that, "The more intelligent person would exhibit sensory acuity" (p.2). He designed intelligence test based on different kinds of sounds and objects. For example, he examined people in differentiating the sounds of different loudness or frequency. Obviously, we should think that intelligence is not as simple as he thought. Few years later, there was a psychologist whose name was Alfred Binet. He was the one who tried to design intelligence test. At first, he did the same as Galton
but his test was more in details. The test measured about veibal memory, numerical reasoning, logical sequences, etc (Gardner, 1999:12).
Next, Wilhelm Stern as cited from Gardner (1999) found the term of intelligence quotient which defined as, "The ratio of one's mental age to one's chronological age, with the ratio to be multiplied by 100" (p. 12). It means that people who have score more than 100 are better that those who have below 100. Generally, people have intelligence score more than 100 but there are some people who have score below 100. This IQ test has been used by people all over the world to measure intelligence. Even, many schools measure the learners' intelligence by conducting this test. Unfortunately, this test has given the early judgement of the learners' intelligences. They are divided in two categories that are smart and stupid. It seems unfair to label the learners while they are still developing their intelligences. Moreover, these labelling may effect the development of the learners in the school. However, this IQ test becomes the famous instrument of measuring intelligences of people.
To sum up, each learner is born with some abilities that are labelled as intelligence. These intelligences can be developed as long as they are given the right support and encouragement. Moreover, these intelligences can be measured by using the instrument test such as IQ (Intelligence Quotient) test.
2.2 Multiple Intelligences
Another famous researcher who studies about intelligence is Howard
Gardner. He has spent lots of times to study about intelligence. Furthermore, he also published several books of his finding about intelligence. He was the one who
against the old view of intelligence which labelled smart and stupid learners. He also argued intelligence test such as IQ test because the instruments of the test only focus on linguistic and logical mathematic intelligence (William Root Technology, 2001:1 available at http://www.geocities .comlnh_rahcnl multipleintelligence.html). Gardner thought that the IQ test looked at linguistic and logical mathematical exclusively. In fact, there are other abilities which can not be measured through this test.
In his book, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st century, Gardner (1999) defined that, ". . .intelligence as a bio psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture" (p. 33-34). It shows that each person has some abilities that can be applied in order to solve the problems that they may have in their lives.
In his enormous book, Frames of Mind: The theory of Multiple Intelligences which published in 1983, Gardner proposed seven kinds of intelligences that people could have. They are verbal linguistic, logical mathematic, spatial or visual, bodily kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. These intelligences are named as Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1999:41-43). Few years later, he introduced three other intelligences which were naturalist, existentialist, and spiritualist in his book, Intelligence Refrarned. Multiple Intelligences for the 21' century (1999). But, he only added naturalist in the list of multiple intelligence where the other two intelligences are still being studied. The discussions of eight intelligences by Gardner (1999: 41-43) are below
The first intelligence is linguistic intelligence. This intelligence refers to the
ability of understanding word and language whether it is written or spoken. People
who have linguistic intelligence enjoy reading, writing, and studying language. They can be storytellers, journalists, or lawyers. Second, logical mathematical intelligence
- refers to the ability of solving and analyzing problems. People who have this intelligence are good in working with numbers or mathematical operations.
Moreover, they are usually good thinker. They like to think in order and to find the cause-effect of the problems that they have. In addition, they enjoy playing games and puzzles which need analytical thinking. They can be mathematicians, accountants, computer programmers, or scientist.
The third intelligence is visual o spatial intelligence. It refers to the ability of visualizing and imaging something in their surrounding. It can be pictures, objects, characters, etc. People who have this intelligence like having day dreaming because they like to imagine things that they see in their surroundings. They like to draw or sketch of visual information surround them. In addition, they are easily to remember things through visual details. Architects, painters, artists and photographers are the people who have this intelligence.
Fourth, bodily kinaesthetic intelligence refers to the ability to use their body to do movements such as when they are dancing, running, jumping or acting. They like physical movements. They have ability to work with their fingers, hands, and feet. Moreover, they can express their feelings by using their body. People who have this ability can be a doctor, surgeon, actor or athlete. The fifth intelligence is musical intelligence. People who have this intelligence enjoy different kinds of music because they learn best through song and melody. They like to hear the rhythm a poem. They can sing and play a music instrument. In addition, they are able to
memorize pattern of music and sound easily. They can be singers, pianists, or
The sixth intelligence relates to the ability of understanding other people. This intelligence is labelled as interpersonal intelligence. People who have this intelligence like to interact and socialize with others, They are able to understand others' feelings and emotions, They can put themselves as other people. In other words, they have empathy of others' feelings. Moreover, they are good in working as a team with other people. They can be teachers, psychologist, socials workers, or salesperson. Next, intrapersonal intelligence that refers to the ability of people to understand what they like or dislike. They enjoy working on their own. They are aware of their feelings and beliefs. They like to express their ideas and opinions which may differ from others. Usually, they have high self-motivation and self discipline. Furthermore, they become independent and introspective because they think that they know themselves better than other people. Counsellors, theologians, and entrepreneurs are examples of people who have this intelligence.
The last intelligence on the lists of multiple intelligences is natural intelligence. This intelligence refers to the ability of understanding nature of the world. It can be both of flora and fauna in the world. People who have this intelligence enjoy working outdoors. They can remember about the species in their environment. People who are high in this intelligence tend to he naturalists, scientists, or farmers.
Overall, there are eight different intelligences that learners may have. There is no one intelligence is better than other intelligences. Each of intelligences has some tharacteristics that differ from one to another, The learners are born with different
intelligences. However, the theory of Multiple TnteUigences gives a new perception of human intelligence. Nowadays, many schools try to apply the theory as one of teaching methods in the classroom. In fact, multiple intelligences is not a classroom methodology but it is a theory (Simon, 2005: 2 available at w.rnrsimons.coni1 missionlmultipleintelligences.sthml). Gardner (1999) stated that, "Mi ideas arid practices cannot be an end in themselves; they cannot serve as a goal for a school or an educational system" (p. 143). Thus, there is a wrong perception if we think that multiple intelligences can be used as one of classroom methodologies that enhance learners' achievement in the school.
2.3.1 Speaking Skills
There are some experts who tried to define different kinds of speaking skills that learners must have. First, Martin Bygate (1987: 5-9) defined that there are two kinds of speaking skills in his book, Language Teaching: A scheme for teacher education. The discussions below are the differences between those two skills.
1. Motor perceptive skills
These skills relate to how learners produce the language. It includes the grammatical patterns, intonation, word choice, and other language features when the learners are speaking.
2. Interaction skills
These skills relate to how learners control the Ianguae. It includes how the learners say the language, what language is going to say, and how to interact with
others. These skills refer to the process of the interaction when the learners are
In general, Bygate's definition of speaking skills did not cover all of the skills
that learners must have. He only listed two kinds of speaking skills which were not in
details. It would be better if he divided these skills into several categories. We know
that speaking skills that learners must have are not as simple as his definition.
Meanwhile, Tricia Hedge defined that there are four different speaking skills
in her book, Teaching and learning in the language classroom (2000).
Besides giving the explanation of speaking skills, she also gives solutions when the
learners find difficulties when they are speaking. The discussion below are speaking
skills that defined by Hedge (2000: 26 1-268)
1. Contextual appropriacy
This skill refers to the ability of the learners to speak based on the setting
where the communication takes place. In addition, this skill refers to the way the
learners communicate with others. In other words, this skill relates to whom we are
2. Fluency and accuracy
Both of fluency and accuracy are important skills in speaking. Fluency refers
to the learners' ability to speak by using right pronunciation and intonation.
Accuracy means that the learners are able to speak by using correct grammar and
word choice based on the situation where the communication goes on.
3. Managing interaction
It refers to the process of language itself. When the learners are speaking,
there are some requirements that learners have to know. it includes how the learners
open and close the conversations, how to respond to others, and how to take turn in
4. Communication strategies
Sometimes, the learners find difficulties in speaking where the other learners
do not understand the messages that they want to coBvey. Thus, the learners should know that there are some strategies that make the communication runs smoothly. They can use gestures, simplify the word choice, or even change the topic of the conversation.
In summary, both definitions from Bygate and Hedge were almost the same. But, Hedge's definition was more complete and in details. In addition, Hedge also defined the skills of how to solve the problems if the communication does not run smoothly and how the learners should interact with others appropriately.
Another researcher who tried to define, speaking skills that learners must have is Jeremy Harmer. In his book, The practice of English language teaching 3rd Ed (2001: 269-271), he proposed that there are two major speaking skills to become a fluent speaker. There were linguistic features skills and mental or social processing
skills. Bach of the skills was divided into several categories. In his definition, he
explained of how the learners produce the language in such a way to make it
comprehensible to others. Furthermore, he also discussed about how to interact with
others and how to understand the information what others were trying to convey. The
discussion of each category is below.
1. Language features
Harmer (2001: 269-270) categorized four categories of language features
skills. The first category is connected speech refers to the learners' abilities to use
connecter when they are speaking. It means that the language that they produce is modified in such a way to make it more fluent, for example, I would have gone becomes I'd'v gone. Second, expressive devices refer to the ability where the learners vary their way of speaking. It relates to the intonation, volume and non verbal communication such as gestures. By using this skill, the learners not only communicate with others but also express their feelings at the same time. The third category is lexis and grammar refer to the learners' abilities to use the correct grammar when they are speaking. There are some language functions such as how to invite others, how to say sorry, and so on. The learners need to know these functions in order to have good communication. The last element of these language features skills is negotiation language that refers to the ability of asking clarification if there is a gap in communication. For example, the learners may ask other learners if they do not get the information what others are trying to convey.
2. Mental and social processing
Harmer (2001: 271) defined the second speaking skills which are divided into three categories. The first category is language processing that refers to the learners' abilities to think the language in their minds before they speak to others. In speaking, they have to process the language to make it comprehensible to other learners. By having this skill, the learners have prepared the language in order to make the communication goes smoothly. Next, interacting with others is an important skill that learners must have. After thinking of the language that they are going to say, it is important to think of the way they speak and interact with others. This skill refers to the ability where the learners not only communicate with others but also understand others' feelings. In addition, this skill refers to how the learners take turn when they
communicate with others. The last category of mental or social processing skills is information processing that relates to the ability of learners to respond what others
are saying at the moment where the communication takes places. They learners should process the information as soon as possible in order to become a good speaker.
In summary, the discussion of speaking skills by Harmer represents all of speaking skills that the learners must have. He explained and discussed each category of the speaking skills in details by giving examples. Moreover, his definition of speaking skills would be appropriate to the learners who study English as foreign language. Because of these reasons, this study will apply the speaking skills by Harmer.
2.3.2 Speaking Activities
There are some researchers who propose different kinds of speaking activities that can be done in the classroom. First, Anna Lazaraton (2001: 106-110) who proposed six different kinds of speaking activities that can be done in English as foreign language classroom.
The first speaking activity is discussion. Lazaraton (2001) stated that, "Discussions are probably the most commonly used activity in the oral skills class" (p.106). it shows that discussion serve a good practice for the learners to develop their speaking skills. When conduct the discussion, teachers should prepare the topic or let the learners to choose the topic that they like. Then, they should give time to the learners to prepare the topic that they are going to discuss. By doing this, the learners will feel more confident in doing the discussion
Speeches become the second activity which is defined by Lazaraton. Through
speeches, the learners try not only to produce the language but also to make it comprehensible to the listeners. In this activity, the learners are free to choose the
topic that they like. Video recording can be an extend activity for the learners to evaluate their performances when they are giving speech. So, it can be a good feedback for them in order to develop their speaking skills. Next, Lazaraton proposed role plays as the speaking activity which can be done to the learners who study English as foreign language. She stated that role plays serve a good practice of understanding socio cultural of the people in some places (2001: 107). It means that the learners can learn how to act out in various situation, feelings, and emotions as well as in the real life. Teachers in classroom should provide the model dialogue before they ask the learners to write the scenario.
The fourth speaking activity is conversations. According to Lazaraton said that conversation is a speaking activity that can develop the self confident of the learners (2001: 108). Moreover, it is a good practice for the learners in developing their speaking skills. As Lazaraton (2001) stated that. ". . . conversation is the most fundamental form of oral communication" (p.108). Usually, conversation can be done through interview or dialogue among the learners. Teachers may vary the activity by asking the learners to interview native speaker and to tape the conversation. Then, Lazaraton (2001:109) defined audio taped oral dialogue journal as the speaking activity in the classroom. This activity gives further practice for learners to be a fluent speaker. The learners are given audiocassette tape to record their oral speaking journal about such topic. Then, both of teachers and learners will evaluate the tape. The last speaking activity which defined by Lazaraton (2001: 109)
is accuracy based activities. Lazaraton (2001:107) mentioned that drills as one of the accuracy based activities. Drills will be useful for the learners at the beginning stage of learning English because it serves a great practice in learning English structures.
Overall, speaking activities was proposed by Lazaraton may promote the development of the learners' speaking skills. She gave description and explanation of how to conduct the speaking activities in the classroom. In addition, her definition can be used as good models for teachers who teach in English foreign language classroom.
Another researcher who proposed speaking activities was Jeremy Harmer. He (2001: 271-274) stated that there are six speaking activities that can be used in the classroom. The first speaking activity is acting from a script. In this activity, the learners may act out dialogue in the course book or from their own dialogue. The learners have written the dialogue or scenario then they perform it in front of the class. Next, communication games are speaking activities which use games as a tool of communication. Teachers may use teaching aids such audio or television depend on the game which is played. It can be describe and draw, solve puzzle, listen and do, and so on. Generally, the learners are more attracted to learn English through games.
Harmer (2001: 272) stated that discussion is the third speaking activity that gives a great practice for learners to speak English. In addition, he added that teachers should motivate their learners in conducting discussion. Sometimes, this activity will not run smoothly if the learners keep silent during discussion. To solve this problem, teacher may conduct pre-activity such as gives pre discussion activities or shows pictures that relates to the topic. Next, prepared talks are speaking activities where the learners prepare such topic to be presented in front of other learners. The - -
learners are free to choose the topic that they like. It is almost the same with speech but in prepared talks the learners are allowed to read the notes or scripts that they have written before.
The fifth speaking activity which defined by Harmer (2001: 274) is questionnaire. In this activity, teachers ask the leames to prepare questions about such topic to be asked to other learners. Then, they will have askanswer activity. The result of the questionnaires can be used for other speaking activities such as discussion or prepared talks. The last speaking activities are simulation or role play. Harmer (2001) stated that, "Many students derive great benefit from simulation and role play" (p.274). It shows that both simulation and role plays serves a good practice for the learners in communicating as if in the real life. Through simulation and role play, the learners are able to act out various situations. Thus, these activities can develop the learners' speaking skills.
in summary, Harmer defined several speaking activities that can be applied in the classroom. His definition is almost the same as Lazaraton but he added games and questionnaires as classroom speaking activities. As we know that games can stimulate learners' motivation and attention. Through games, the learners have learned unconsciously.
Another researcher who proposed speaking activities that can promote the speaking skills is David Lazear. His definition of speaking activities is quite different from Lazaraton and Harmer because he divided the activities based on the multiple intelligences. In his book, Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment (1999), he proposed some assessment ideas of speaking activities that based on multiple intelligences that learners have. Even though he did not describe each activity in
details, it can be concluded that there are eleven speaking activities that based on multiple intelligences that learners have. The speaking activities are discussion, debate, conversation, storytelling, speech, interview, problem solving, role play, presentation, ask and answer, and games. (Lazear, 1999:106-130)
24 Multiple Intelligences Underlie Learners' Speaking Skills
As explained before, multiple intelligeiices is not a set of teaching methodology that can be applied in the classroom (Simon, 2005: 2 available at www.mrsimons.comlmissionlmultipleintelligences.sthml). It is a bio psychological potential of the learners which can be used in order to solve the problems that may arise in their lives (Gardner, 1999:33-34). Moreover, Gardner (1991) cited from Schmidt (2001:2) available at http://www.montville.netJwoodmont/cas/mi mentioned that each learner is able to develop all intelligences as long as they are given appropriate encouragement. Nevertheless, the learners only show inclination on two or three intelligences while the other intelligences are at balance. Even, there are intelligences that have never been applied by the learners because they are not given the appropriate encouragement.
Each intelligence has some characteristics that may support the learners in developing their speaking skills. Therefore, teachers have tried to conduct different
kinds of speaking activities in order to give opportunities for learners to develop their speaking skills. Teachers should create speaking activities that involve different
kinds of the intelligences. Thus, they help the learners to develop both their speaking skills and intelligences.
First of all, there is no doubt that the learners will apply linguistic intelligence in learning English. As we know that linguistic relates to word and language. According to definition speaking skills by Harmer (2001:269-271) stated that word and language are the main elements of the skills that the learners must have. Language features SkillS are the speaking skills that apply linguistic intelligence. By knowing this, we may conclude that linguistic must underlie learners' speaking skills.
Second, logical mathematic may support the learners to process the language in order to make it comprehensible to others. It shows that this intelligence support the learners in language processing skill. Moreover, the learners should think about grammar and structure of the language that they are going to say. It relates to the lexis and grammar skill that learners must have. In classroom speaking activities, the learners require this intelligence when they have discussion or debate about such topic. Furthermore, teacher may ask the learners to make conclusion of the discussion. It shows that the learners may use their deductive or inductive reasoning. In short, this intelligence closely relates to linguistic intelligence that underlies learners' speaking skills.
j During speaking activities in the classroom, teachers may use teaching aids such as pictures, charts, and map. These teaching aids would be helpful for the learners who have visual intelligence. There are many speaking activities that use these teachings aids such as story telling, discussion, or conversation. For example, the learners have to tell a story about a picture to other learners. By using the pictures, the learners are able to visualize and imagine the story. We know that this
speaking activity promotes speaking skill ilt learners must haw h as negotiation language, language processing, information processing and so on.
Next, bodily kinaesthetic intelligence may help the learners to express what
they are feelings through non verbal communication such as gestures, mimic and
other body languages. It can be related to expressive devices skill. Sometimes, these non verbal communications can be regarded as the genuine feelings of people. As we
know that communication goes not only through verbal communication but also non verbal communication. In addition, this intelligence also supports the learners in speaking activities such as role play or conversation where the learners become other people. Thus, it can be a good practice for the learners in developing their speaking skills.
Musical intelligence can be applied by the learners in speaking activities such as reading a poem or drama musical. When they read the poem, they have to use appropriate rhythm of each couplet. Actually, this intelligence does not give great contribution to develop learners' speaking skills directly unless it is combined with other intelligences. For examples, when the learners have drama musical, they have to combine with other intelligences such as linguistic and bodily kinaesthetic intelligence. Through drama, the learners may develop several speaking skills at the same time such as expressive devices, lexis and grammar, language processing, interacting with others and so on. However, there is a possibility that musical intelligence may underlie learners in developing their speaking skills.
In classroom speaking activities, the learners need to interact with other
learners. They can communicate with others by applying interpersonal intelligence. It
will help them in understanding other learners' feeling and emotion. Moreover, this
intelligence is needed to make the communication run smoothly. As Harmer (2001:269-271) stated that the ability of interacting with others is the speaking skill that learners must have.
Meanwhile, intrapersonal intelligence refers to the ability of learners to understand themselves (Gardner, 1999:43). It relates o the learners' ability to express and to share their ideas and opinions. This intelligence may help the learners in speaking activities such as discussion, debate, and speech. In addition, the learners may apply this intelligence when they have to process and think about the language when they are speaking. It relates to language processing and information processing skills.
The last is naturalist intelligence may support the learners when they have speaking activities like discussion or speech about natural world. This intelligence is the same as musical intelligence which can not stand alone unless it is combined with other intelligences such as linguistic or logical intelligence. Discussion and speech are speaking activities that promote speaking skills. Through these activities, the learners may practice their speaking skills like interacting with others, negotiation language or language processing.
To sum up, there are eight intelligences that may underlie learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kids of speaking activities. The more intelligences are involved the better speaking activity is conducted. In addition, teachers have helped the learners to develop not only their intelligences but also speaking skills.
This chapter will discuss about research design, participant, time and place,
instruments, data collection process, and data analysis of the study.
3.1. Research Design
This study was conducted with a single purpose which was to find out what kinds of intelligences that underlie learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kinds of speaking activities. In order to achieve the purpose of the study above, this study was designed as an etirnography study which studied about behaviour and characteristic of group of learners and teachers in one area. According to Cresswell (1998) stated that, "Ethnography is a research that study about behaviour of a culture sharing group." (p.39). Classroom observation (using the TALOS instrument), interviews, documentations, field notes were the type of information or data that were collected in ethnography study. To enrich the data, this study also used questionnaire and classroom recording.
3.2. The Participant of the Study
The subjects of the study were two teachers who taught English and two classes of first-year learners at the SMA 38. This study only observed two classes because of the overlapping schedules. Another cause was the limitation of the time where the learners would have the examination at the end of semester.
3.3. The Time and Place of the Study
The study was conducted in English lesson at the SMA 38 Jakarta which
started from April 29 to June 10 2005.
3.4. The Instruments of the study
ifl order to obtain the data, this study used several instruments to give information that related with the research questions. The instruments were classroom observation, field notes, interview, questionnaires, work samples of learners, and classroom recording. The discussion of each inssrument is below:
3.4.1. Classroom observation
A Target Language Observation Scheme (TALOS) instrument from Uliman and Geva (1984) cited from Malamah (1987: 65-69) was used to observe speaking activities that happened in the classroom. The instrument has been modified into several list of observational units which consisted of several speaking activities that were based on multiple intelligences which defined by David Lazear (1999: 107- 129). This instrument has two sections which were low inference section and high inference section. There were five different frequencies of the data in which 0 for extremely low frequency, 1 for iow frequency, 2-3 for fairly often frequency, 4-7 for high frequency, and 8-12 for extremely high frequency. Acording to Nunan (1993:
60) stated that low inference was the one of the ways in order to prove whether the data was valid or not in ethnography study.
Meanwhile, there is a different coding between low and high inference. High inference section only relied on general conclusion of the researcher after observing the classroom activities. But, this section also has a similarity with low inference
section in which there were five different frequencies of giving the score. There were o for extremely lOW frequency, 1 for low frequency, 2 for fairly often frequency. 3
for high frequency, and 4 for extremely high frequency.
This instrument consisted of several categories which classified by Ullman and Geva (1984) cited from Malamah (1987:68). There were addition observation units which were modified based on the need in order to answer the research
1. To whom referred to the interaction that was being addressed by teachers from whole class to individual in the classroom.
2. Skill Focus showed the reading. writing, listening, and speaking skills that
were focussed in each segment. We know that teachers sometimes integrate all of the skills into one lesson.
3. Content focus was divided into linguistic content and substantive content.
Linguistic content which emphasizes on the content of learning English as
second language consisted of sound, word, phrase and discourse. Meanwhile substantive content which referred to the development of cultural information
and the integration of other subject matter during the lesson.
4. Speaking activities were divided into eight categories based on the lists of multiple intelligences by David Lazear (1999:106-129). Each intelligence represented some activities that differed from one to another.
5. Speaking skills referred to the ability of learners to speak and to communicate appropriately, accurately, and fluently. This study used speaking skills which
defined by Jeremy Harmer (2001: 269-271)
6. Teaching medium referred to the teaching aids that teachers used during the observation in the classroom. It consisted of text. audio, visual, audio visual,
game, poem, authentic materials and so on.
7. Language use served the information of the language that both teachers and learners used in the classroom.
In short, each category served the information and data that could be used to identif' what kinds of intelligences that supported learners' speaking skills in dealing with speaking activities. In addition, it provided speaking skills that were used by the learners through the classroom speaking activities.
3.42. Field notes
Field notes provided a description of activities that happened in the classroom. It consisted of the lists of the steps and procedures of each activity that had been observed. The researcher also gave comment and general conclusion of each activity that has been observed.
The interview consisted of thirteen questions which were defined by David Lazear (1999) about several kinds of spaking activities that were based on multiple intelligences. Each question was asked in order to identify what kinds of intelligences that supported learners' speaking skills. Moreover, it could strengthen the findings data from other instruments such as classroom observation and field
The questionnaire consisted of thirteen closed questions which were
subdivided into several lists of classroom speaking activities that based on multiple
intelligences which defined by David Lazear (1999:107-129). The data from questionnaires were used in order to identify what kinds of intelligences that support learners in dealing with speaking activities. Moreover, the data from questionnaire could support the findings from other instruments such as interview and classroom observation.
3.4.5. Work samples of learners
In order to enrich the data, this study also collected the work samples of the learners. It would be authentic materials of the activities that happened in the classroom. Work samples or documentation is one of the information that are collected in ethnography study.
3.4.6. Classroom recording
While observing the activities, the researcher also recorded all activities that happened in the classroom. It provided the actual language that was being used in the classroom.
3.5. Data Collection Process
The data were collected through several instruments that have been explained above. First, classroom observation was conducted from April 29 to June 10 2005. The researcher became an observer who sat at the back of the classroom. The TALOS instrument was used in order to give the pictures of what kinds of intelligences that supported learners' speaking skills in dealing with various kinds of speaking activities in the classroom. This instrument has two sections which were low inference section and high inference section The data from low inference section was coded in a range of five minutes of each observational unit. There was
no coding for four minutes and thirty seconds because it was used to observe the classroom while the rest of thirty second was used to code what things had happened
during the observation. After giving a thick ('i) for each observational unit, the number of data would be counted to get the average score of the observation.
Meanwhile, high inference section was coded after the researcher observed the activities in the classroom. in this section, the score was coded after the researcher made an average score of the observation.
Second, the researcher used field notes which provided the findings that could not be collected from TALOS instrument. It gave the further descriptions of the activities that could enrich the findings from other instruments. Third, the researcher recorded all of the activities by using tape recorder. It was used in order to provide the actual language that was being used during the lesson, By having the transcript of classroom speaking activities,the researcher could reanalyze the data if there was any information which could not be collected during the observation.
Fourth, the interview was conducted from May 26 to June 10 2005. It was addressed to teachers and ten learners of two classed that have been observed. Both teachers and learners were interviewed individually. The researcher used tape recording rather than note taking in interviewing teachers and learners in order to preserve actual language and to reanalyze the data after the interview was conducted. (Nunan,1993:153). The interview was used to find out what kinds of intelligences that supported learners' speaking skills.
Fifth, the questionnaire was distributed to learners of two classes that have been observed. It was conducted on May 26 2005 after the learners finished studying in the school. The questionnaire is written in Bahasa indonesia in order to make the
learners easier to answer the questions. It consisted of several list of speaking activities that based the classification of the learners' intelligences. The researcher who was accompanied by teachers explained about the way of answering the questionnaires before distributing it to the learners. The learners only answered the questionnaires by giving a thick (q) on the lists of speaking activities that they have ever done in the classroom.
The last, the researcher also collected the work samples of the learners when they had speaking activities. It was used to give more evidence of the activities that had been observed. Moreover, the findings would give further information that could support other findings.
3.6. Data Analysis
The data collected in this study were analyzed into two main points. First, the data from classroom observation (using the TALOS instrument), field notes, classroom recording, work samples of learners, interview and questionnaire were triangulated in order to find out what kinds of intelligences underlie learners in dealing with speaking activities. Second, all of the data collected except the questionnaire wer analyzed in order to find out what kinds of intelligences underlie learners' speaking skills. All of the data were synchronized in order to find out whether the data support one another or not.